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  • Wind pollution index and wind pollution frequency a climatological problem in urban planning.
  • Arguing from the bases that the frequencies of occurrence of weather conducive to air pollution with wind from different directions are more useful to the planning of industrial location than the prevailing wind principle, the author suggests two
  • equations the wind pollution index, and the wind pollution frequency measurement for consideration by urban planners. (TNC).
  • Interannual variability of wind speed and wind power at five tall-tower sites in Minnesota (1996-2001)
  • Interannual variability ; Methodology ; Minnesota ; United States of America ; Wind ; Wind energy ; Wind speed ; Years 1990-99
  • The AA. use wind speed measurements from 1996-2001 at 70 m above ground (a typical wind turbine height) to investigate interannual variability in wind speed and wind power at 5 sites in Minnesota, and to determine whether the sites have similar
  • patterns of variability. They use the standard deviation (computed from mean hourly data) as a measure of within-year variability because squared differences emphasize the effects of the long tails of the wind speed and wind power distributions.
  • Wind erosion of residue waste. Part I. Using the wind profile to characterise wind erosion
  • Aeolian features ; Agropedology ; Australia ; Erodibility ; Field experiment ; Sedimentology ; Western Australia ; Wind erosion
  • A portable wind tunnel is used to assess the erodibility of prepared surfaces of residue waste. The data are extensive and include wind profiles, collections of saltation and suspension material as well as particle sizing by elutriation. Still
  • Measuring the erositivity of the wind
  • Aeolian features ; Methodology ; Model ; Soil ; Soil erosion ; Soil properties ; Suspended load ; Wind ; Wind erosion ; Wind speed
  • Measuring wind erosion is difficult as it requires the coincidence of a rare wind event with soil conditions that allow erosion. There is not necessarily a distinct threshold velocity; the relative force of the wind and the fluffiness of the soil
  • determine whether erosion will occur. The relative importance of stable/unstable surface elements may be determined by analysing the wind profile. Lastly, a model of suspension with saltation has evolved; it suggests that saltation is not distinctly
  • Wind effects on sediment transport by raindrop-impacted shallow flow : a wind-tunnel study
  • Belgium ; Experimentation ; Overland flow ; Raindrop erosion ; Rainfall simulation ; Roughness ; Sediment transport ; Soil erosion ; Splash ; Water erosion ; Wind ; Wind speed
  • In this study, sediment transport rates by raindrop-impacted shallow flow were measured under wind-driven rain. By comparing the results from windward and leeward slopes, the AA aimed to clarify the effects of wind velocity and direction
  • on the transport process. The study was conducted in a wind tunnel rainfall simulator facility at Ghent University, Belgium.
  • Climatological aspects of the coastal wind field at Cape Town, Port Elizabeth and Durban
  • Climatology ; Coastal environment ; Seasonal variation ; South Africa ; Wind
  • Wind data for the three cities are analyzed to establish the coastal wind field around South Africa. Marked seasonal variability is found. - (AJC)
  • Wind abrasion on Earth and Mars in Models in geomorphology.
  • Characteristics of wind blown particles, wind frequencies and material properties appropriate for estimating rates of wind abrasion on Earth and Mars.
  • Bagnold's kink : a physical feature of a wind velocity profile modified by blown sand?
  • Eolian features ; Eolian transport ; Model ; Sand ; Wind
  • This paper shows that a kink is indeed a physical feature of the modified wind velocity profile and that it is caused, as Bagnold (1941) suggested, by a maximum, occurring at some height above the surface, in the momentum extracted by the grains
  • from the wind. Comments are made on both the form of the modified wind velocity profile and the fluid shear stress profile in the grain layer.
  • Superposition of aeolian dust ripple patterns as a result of changing wind directions
  • Eolian dust ; Eolian features ; Experimentation ; Geomorphometry ; Ripple-marks ; Wind
  • The effect of a change of wind direction on the orientation (and some other morphometric characteristics) or aeolian dust ripples is investigated. Ripple formation is simulated in a wind tunnel on surfaces that are already characterized
  • by a previously established rippling. The effect of a wind rotation 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and 180 degrees is examined.
  • Alföld ; Climate ; Energy;Power ; Hungary ; Wind ; Wind energy ; Wind speed
  • The paper analyses the wind conditions and the location of old windmills on the Great Hungarian Plain, delimiting the areas where the amount of wind power is sufficient to operate wind converters of smaller capacity. - (JS)
  • Wind velocity and algal crusts in dune blowouts
  • Aeolian features ; Algae ; Coastal environment ; Dune ; Eolian deflation ; Model ; Netherlands (The) ; Spatial distribution ; Wind speed
  • The frequency distribution of the general wind at Valkenburg is analysed and combined with the horizontal wind velocity pattern within blowouts. A simulation model, producing the spatial distribution of the wind power shows that the prevalence
  • of algal crusts at the SW side of blowouts agrees well with the location which reaches the lower wind power values. In other parts of the blowouts algal crusts are damaged by moving sand at times of high wind velocity.
  • Loess distribution by variable winds
  • Welcoming the wind ? Determinants of wind power development among U.S. States
  • Electricity ; Energy ; Farm ; United States of America ; Wind energy
  • The article analyses the emerging geography of wind energy on a state-by-state basis. The primary determinants of wind energy development among U.S. states are human geographic factors of population distribution, and resulting geography
  • of electricity demand and transmission line accessibility, together with state-based energy policies, including electric utility restructuring, renewable postfolio standards, and procedures for siting and permitting wind farms.
  • Spatial distribution of wind erosion and its driving factors in China
  • Aeolian features ; Arid area ; China ; Desertification ; Geographical information system ; Land use ; Remote sensing ; Spatial distribution ; Vegetation index ; Wind erosion ; Wind speed
  • Based on remote sensing and geographic information system, the spatial distribution of nation-wide wind erosion is studied, and the 1:100 000 national map of soil erosion by wind in China is made. Wind speed, soil dryness, NDVI, soil texture
  • and the slope of land surface are the key factors to wind erosion. The relations between wind erosion and each factor are discussed. The method of principal component is used to pick up the information included in the 5 factors, and the wind erosion dynamic
  • index (WEDI) is established. Its comparison with the RS/GIS derived data shows that WEDI can reflect the potential capacity of soil erosion by wind.
  • History of strong winds in the Czech lands : causes, fluctuations, impacts
  • Climatology ; Czech Republic ; Global change ; Impact ; Sixteenth Century ; Storm ; Tornado ; Twentieth Century ; Wind ; Wind speed
  • Problems of wind speed measurements are analysed. The climatology of strong winds in the Czech Republic during the period 1961-1990 is presented. The main groups of strong winds are characterised according to their origin. The accuracy of historical
  • written reports of strong winds and to their impacts in the pre-instrumental period are discussed. The chronology of strong damaging winds in the Czech lands from A.D. 1500-1929 is presented with a division into gales on the one hand and strong winds
  • connected with convective storms on the other. Cases of gales of the century are described. The impact of strong winds is discussed, with special attention being paid to forest damage.
  • Wind erosion on arable land in Scania, Sweden and the relation to the wind climate - a review
  • Wind erosion in Europe. Special issue
  • Agricultural land use ; Climatic variation ; Cultivated land ; Skane ; Soil ; Soil erosion ; Sweden ; Vulnerability ; Weather type ; Wind ; Wind erosion
  • This paper addresses variations in the wind climate in relation to changes in the impact of wind erosion on agricultural lands with Scania, the southernmost province of Sweden, as an example. The literature concerning wind erosion in the region
  • is reviewed and the conclusions are linked to recent analyses of the regional wind climate.
  • Possible contributions of wind power to South Africa's energy needs
  • Factors influencing the availability of wind power in South Africa are examined, and possible ways in which wind power could be implemented are discussed. (AJC).
  • Proneness of soils to wind erosion as a function of moisture content and wind speed
  • Arid land;Arid environment ; Eolian erosion;Wind erosion ; Soil erosion ; Soil moisture ; Wind ; Wind speed
  • A stochastic model for initial movement of sand grains by wind
  • Aeolian features ; Aeolian transport ; Model ; Stochastic model ; Threshold ; Wind ; Wind speed
  • A stochastic model for entrainment of sand grains by wind is presented through analysis of the forces exerted on a single spherical grain, coupled with fluctuations of wind velocity and the change in grain position on the surface, in order
  • to understand the probability of initial movement of sand grains by wind.
  • Simulation of daily total wind energy using a time-series model
  • Climatic variability ; Forecast ; Interannual variability ; Model ; Simulation ; Statistics ; Time series ; United States of America ; Wind ; Wind speed
  • The focus of this research is the development, evaluation, and implementation of a mathematical/statistical time-series model to simulate daily total wind energy in the central United States. By modeling the annual cycle, sub-annual cycles
  • , autocorrelation, and random component of the time series, a concise representation of daily total wind energy is provided. The model can be used to create scenarios and probability distributions for wind energy that are conditional on time of year and persistence