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  • Possibilities for water conservation in Bulgaria
  • Bulgaria ; Consumption ; Demand ; Water ; Water economics ; Water management ; Water use
  • Existing water resources can become inadequate if water losses are too important and if there is an irrational use of water. Water conservation could solve some water supply problems by providing more reasonable water consumption and additional time
  • for development of new resources. The possibilities for reducing water use and the need for developing a national conservation program are discussed. An analysis of the variables which affect water use is performed. Developing of water-use efficiency standards
  • for plumbing fixtures and conservation-oriented water rates and measures are proposed.
  • Reflections on New Zealand water
  • Allocation ; Management ; New Zealand ; Water ; Water economics ; Water management ; Water resources ; Water use
  • Implementing the resource management act compels those responsible for managing the allocation and end-use of water resources to address several conceptual issues. They include the expansion of the range of relevant management values, regionalism
  • , opportunity costs in allocation, and efficiency of end-use.
  • Fog : a possible solution to rural water problems ?
  • Countryside ; Fog ; Fresh water ; Project ; South Africa ; Water ; Water needs ; Water resources
  • Acute water shortages are experienced regularly in many areas. It is thus of the greatest importance to identify other sources of water in these regions. Fog is one such new source of fresh water and shows a significant potential for use
  • as a domestic water supply, notably the South African Fog Water Project. - (AJC)
  • Substitutes for water are being found in the Middle East and North Africa
  • Agricultural use ; Asia ; Food production ; Middle East ; Self-sufficiency in food ; Water ; Water economics ; Water management ; Water resources ; Water use
  • Food gaps are resulting from mismatches between the demand and supply of water in semi-arid and arid countries. The institutions with responsibility for the allocation and planning of water use are not robust enough to provide leadership to ensure
  • that scarce water is used sustainably. Case studies in these regions exemplify the strategies adopted in various circumstances.
  • Romania's water resources and their use
  • Carrying capacity ; Ground water;Underground water ; Hydro-electric station ; Navigation ; Rill wash;Runoff ; Romania ; Water ; Water resources ; Water use
  • In relation to population, Romania's water supplies are quite modest. They are essentialy provided by the rivers. The factors responsible for both maximum and minimum runoff are discussed and particular reference is made to the floods of 1970. Load
  • and turbidity levels are also discussed. Underground water sources are described and a review of demand gives particular attention to hydroelectricity and water transport.
  • The geography of land use and water quality in Puerto Rico
  • Environmental conservation ; Land use ; Puerto Rico ; Water ; Water pollution ; Water quality ; Watershed
  • Field sampling in the Basins of the Yaguez, Cibuco and Guayanés Rivers revealed that their waters are heavily contaminated with coliform bacteria, nitrogenous compounds, heavy metals and semi-volatile organic compounds. The AA. believe this degree
  • Water use and millet production in the Sahel
  • Africa ; Arid area ; Biomass ; Drought ; Evapotranspiration ; Land use ; Model ; Sahel ; Water balance ; Water use
  • Water-avaibility is an important and often critical factor for plant-production in the Sahel. The most important crop of this region is millet, which has a low water requirement and a high resistance to drought. In this article attention is drawn
  • to the importance of properly understanding the water balance in the Sahel, and the relationship between biomass production and transpiration is discussed. A method for estimating transpiration from a heterogeneous vegetation cover is tested.
  • The Sava River and the complex use of its waters
  • A water « atlas » exercise with conservation students
  • Applied hydrology ; Ohio ; Pedagogy ; United States ; Water ; Water resources
  • , irrigation, public water supply, industrial water use and water quality. - (DWG)
  • With information assembled by university-level geography students, the A. explains a three-stage approach to creating a water atlas of the State of Ohio that included maps of geology, climate, hydrology, soils, ecology, wetlands, groundwater
  • Impacts of human activities on water cycles in Haihe basin
  • China ; Human impact ; Impact ; Phreatic ground water ; Water balance ; Water cycle ; Water pollution ; Water quality ; Water use ; Watershed
  • , groundwater over-exploitation, and water pollution have caused a series of environmental problems in the area. The best way to meet increasing water demands of human activities is to raise efficiency of water resources use. Waste water discharge should
  • This paper studies effects of human activities on water cycle in Haihe basin, focusing on the effects on the key elements of water balance and environmental issues caused by unreasonable water development and utilization. River runoff reduction
  • Water and soil resource conservation and utilization on the northwest side of Mount Kenya
  • Forest ; Hydrology ; Kenya ; Land use ; Water balance ; Water cycle;Water circulation ; Water resources
  • The forest belt between 2 400 and 3 500 m on Mt. Kenya is important for the supply of perennial water to streams and recharge of the groundwater table in the semi-arid plateau below. Two scales are used to study the interrelationships : water
  • balance of the Naro Moru Basin and water conservation in the foothills of Kalala and Matanya.―(DWG)
  • The shortage of water resources in the Northern territory of China and its mitigative countermeasures
  • China ; Conflict ; Environment ; Northern China ; Water ; Water management ; Water needs ; Water resources ; Water use
  • The shortage of water resource and large scale exploitation of groundwater have caused a series of environmental problems. The aims of mitigative countermeasures are mainly at developing water saving agriculture and industries, strenghtening water
  • resources management and reallocating water resources between different regions.
  • Pollution ; Spain ; Valencian Community ; Water ; Water needs ; Water pollution ; Water resources ; Water use
  • Spain ; Water ; Water economics ; Water needs ; Water resources ; Water use
  • Preliminary analyses for crop water consumption by using lysimeter
  • Agriculture ; Cereal ; China ; Crop yield ; Drainage ; Evapotranspiration ; Irrigation ; Northern China ; Water ; Water management ; Water needs
  • This paper deliberates on the issue of water consumption (evapotranspiration, ET) of 3 main crops in North China : wheat, corn and bean, its relation with crop yield and the possible use of thus in the water saving practice.
  • Optimum use of water resources.
  • The publication presents a methodology developed for planning the optimum supply of irrigation water for agricultural practices in Varamin Plain, Iran. As a mathematical simulation technique, optimization method is used by applying the linear
  • programming to the problem of the optimal joint development and supply of surface water and ground water. Separately, a mathematical ground water basin model of the region is linked to the linear programming model to study the ground water level variations
  • The use of gypsum, spheres for identifying water flow routes in soils
  • Gypsum has been cast into spheres and placed in soils| weight loss has been used to identify relative water flow routes. Theoretical considerations and laboratory experimentation show that solutional weight loss of the material used increased
  • with increasing water flow, but is independent of pH above pH 4. Results for gypsum sphere weight loss are presented for soils where moisture conditions have been measured independently using tensiometers. The data suggest that the weight loss method provides
  • a viable time-integrated demonstration of relative water flow routes.
  • The emerging water crisis in Bulgaria
  • Agriculture ; Bulgaria ; Drinking water ; Drought ; Industry ; Sofia ; Water ; Water resources ; Water supply ; Water use ; Weather type ; Years 1990-99
  • persistence remains a mystery. Similarly, from the perspective of water supply and use, it is clear that the crisis would have reached disaster proportions if had not economic downturns in industry and agriculture taken place since 1989.
  • On using the effective contact angle and the water drop penetration time for classification of water repellency in dune soils
  • Water repellency is commonly measured in one of two ways : by determining the contact angle between the water drop and the soil surface, and by counting the number of seconds it takes the water drop to penetrate into the soil. The purpose
  • of this study is to investigate which of the two tests is more suitable for measuring water repellency in dune soils.
  • A case study of residential water use in the Patos Basin, Northeast Brazil
  • The A. deals with the problem of residential water use in the Patos Basin, a typical semi-arid region of the Brazilian Northeast. The A. discusses the water as well as the human life in those areas. - (SGA)