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  • GPS surveying facilitates the production of accurate glacier maps for mass balance programmes. Data obtained by snow depth probing and GPS surveying in 1995 at Austre Okstindbreen, Okstindan area, Norway, indicate that repeated GPS surveys
  • surveying of several glaciers within an area would overcome the difficulties arising when mass balance studies are confined to a single glacier within a particular area.
  • 1999
  • A mass balance model that uses low-altitude meteorological observations and the area-altitude distribution of a glacier
  • A glacier mass balance model that requires only low-altitude precipitation and temperature observations and the glacier's area-altitude distribution is presented as an alternative to direct field measurements. Input to the model for South Cascade
  • 1999
  • , whereas the dependence of the accumulation area-total area ratio (AAR) on b is characterized by nearly identical sensitivities. Moreover, AAR correlates better with b than ELA, therefore AAR is regarded as a more representative parameter
  • 1999
  • Attibuted to high altitude and inland location, the glaciers in China are characterized by very low temperature. The prevailing monsoon climate delivers most of the annual precipitation over glaciated areas of China in the summer, making the major
  • by net accumulation and net ablation during the year. The monitored glaciers are few compared with the large glacierized area in China. Some estimative models are thus introduced.
  • 1999
  • Arctic Region ; Cold area ; Glacier ; Glacier mass balance ; Methodology ; Spitsbergen ; Svalbard
  • 1999
  • in firn areas. Its distinguishing features are its leight weight, and the variety of tasks to which it can be adjusted. Furthermore, it is easy to operate even by one person.
  • 1999
  • in autumn 1997. Preliminary results from Unteraar Glacier are presented, and the potential of this method for the generation of DEMs of firn area is discussed.
  • 1999
  • Alaska ; Climatic variation ; Cold area ; Glacier ; Glacier fluctuation ; Glacier mass balance ; Ground survey ; Interannual variability ; Research programme ; Seasonal variability ; Time series ; United States of America
  • 1999
  • that are missing from the direct method are basal melt, internal melt, and ablation on crevasse walls. Possible systematic measurement errors include under-estimation of the density of lost material, sinking stakes, or poorly represented areas.
  • 1999
  • Aerial photography ; Alaska ; Cold area ; Geodesy ; Glacial ablation ; Glacier ; Glacier mass balance ; Measurement ; Remote sensing ; Twentieth Century
  • 1999
  • Albedo ; Arctic Region ; Canada ; Cold area ; Diurnal variation ; Ellesmere ; Energy balance ; Glacier ; Glacier mass balance ; Model ; Northwest Territories
  • 1999