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  • Countryside ; Demographic change ; Development ; Energy source ; Environmental change ; Globalization ; Impact ; Localism ; Poland ; Rural area ; Rural society ; Technological innovation ; Twenty-first century
  • . Probably, two basic types of rural areas will form urban villages in the vicinity of towns and further away, traditional villages shall remain. – (BJ)
  • The study identified the most important trends affecting the future picture of rural areas in Poland. These included: globalization, localism, demographic polarization, transformation of the natural environment, diversification of energy sources
  • , growth of information and knowledge-based society. The picture of Poland’s rural areas in about forty years probably will not witness any radical changes but a thesis could be formed here, that it will be more diverse, more active and more attractive
  • The subject of the studies are these agricultural problem areas in Poland. The first part reviews the concepts and main thrusts of research, against the background of the subject literature, as well as the empirical results obtained. The second part
  • entails a delimitation and characterisation of agricultural problem areas. A variety of methods were used to identify and describe areas backward in their development, areas of productive reserves, areas of unfavourable environmental conditions
  • and conflict areas. In the third part, attention is paid to the evolutionary character of agricultural problem areas. - (L'A.).
  • Problem areas in Poland's agriculture
  • In the A.'s opinion an agricultural problem area is characterised by an accumulation of negative socioeconomic and (or) natural phenomena handicapping it in comparison with agricultural areas of characteristics average for the country, and weakening
  • of large areas of land and a lack of interest in farm enlargement. A division of agricultural problem areas into 4 types may be proposed. These areas are concentrated in just a few regions of Poland. - (BJ)
  • Population-related problem areas are among the most important types of such problem areas in Poland, requiring a greater interest from scientists and practitioners than has so far been the case. It is possible to propose their division
  • into the following categories : areas with a skewed age structure to the population, areas with an unfavourable sex structure to the population, areas with sustained excessive outflows of population, areas of occupational inactivity. - (BJ)
  • Agricultural modernization ; Agriculture ; Competitiveness ; Development strategy ; Economic development ; Farm ; Innovation ; Poland ; Rural area ; Rural development ; Rural economy ; Socio-economic system ; Spatial differentiation ; Spatial
  • of success stories in rural areas. Such areas are characterized by a favourable course to socio-economic phenomena and processes that stimulate or enhance the development of their spatial structure. The first part of the article thus works on a theory
  • of successful areas, as well as addressing the methods by which these may be identified. Among successful areas, there are several distinguishable elements, namely local centres of success, areas of progress and areas of competitive farming. The second part
  • then discusses and evaluates the most important determinants of economic success in rural areas. - (BJ)
  • Municipality ; Poland ; Post-communism ; Rural area ; Rural development ; Spatial analysis
  • of rural area (i.e. areas with a prevalence of intensive, commercial agriculture ; areas with a prevalence of traditional, low-intensity agriculture ; forest area ; suburban areas of mixed functions and areas of importance to tourism and recreation. - (BJ)
  • The development of non-agricultural economic activity in Poland's rural areas
  • Changing functions of rural areas in the Baltic Sea Region
  • Cooperative ; Countryside ; Field experiment ; Poland ; Rural area ; Statistics
  • This article, devoted to the issue of non-agricultural economic activity in rural areas, reports upon the last statistical data, as well as material obtained by way of field study. Successive sections acquaint the reader with the contemporary
  • functional structure of rural areas, the areas in which non-agricultural business are concentrated, the development of new functions in the countryside and factors favouring this development. The summary notes that Poland's period of transformation brought
  • Concept ; Geographic research ; Poland ; Rural area
  • The article considers the geography of rural areas - in the opinion of the author a new research discipline where Polish geography is concerned. Successive parts therefore discuss the subject itself, its development in other countries
  • , and the research on rural areas now being carried out by geographers in Poland. An attempt is also made to define the concept of the rural area. - (BJ)
  • Economic growth ; Economic indicators ; Economic restructuring ; Migratory balance ; Poland ; Rural area
  • The present paper aims at choosing indexes, identifying and characterizing the success areas in general scale, as well as giving the examples and determining the key factors behind economic recovery in some rural areas. The success areas were
  • Agricultural region ; Agriculture ; Farm ; Poland ; Polarization ; Regional disparities ; Rural area ; Rural development
  • In the 1990s it became clear that there was an intensification of the processes of polarisation in agriculture. The greatest destruction of agriculture was that observed in the problem areas. The field research carried out has pointed to many
  • unfavourable phenomena that are present in agricultural problem areas. In general, farmers are very critical of the present state of agriculture, and of its prospects in the next few years. Agricultural problem areas should take a special place in the process
  • by which agriculture is restructured. Without an external policy, they have no chance of proper development. The most difficult challenge is that facing agriculture in the areas backward in development or of low-quality productive agricultural space. - (BJ)
  • Countryside ; Cultural studies ; Economic restructuring ; Poland ; Quality of life ; Rural area ; Social change ; Spatial structure ; Years 1990-99
  • The 1990s brought economic, social and cultural change in Poland's rural areas. An analysis of the pluses and minuses to the precesses ongoing in rural areas inclines the observer to conclude that rural areas have paid a much higher price
  • for the transformation than the city. Nevertheless, the last decade of the 20th century did bring many new and favourable elements to socioeconomic life in the rural areas. Certain economic functions have grown in strength, while the quality of life in the countryside
  • Data ; Education system ; Educational level ; Enquiry ; Migration ; Natural increase ; Poland ; Rural area ; Rural population
  • The aim of this paper is to identify and evaluate the population processes and phenomena in the rural areas. The deliberations refer to the subject of migration and natural movement, level of education and educational system in the country, as well
  • , but the phenomenon continues to occur, most often in peripheral areas. In the neighbourhood of big agglomerations, a reverse process is taking place. - (BJ)
  • Countryside ; Forecast ; Globalization ; Impact ; Localism ; Poland ; Regional development ; Rural area ; Scenario ; Technological innovation ; Twenty-first century
  • One of the main scientific purposes of this study was to prepare a theoretical and methodological basis for generating development scenarios for rural areas. Another equally important aim of the research was the preparation of a picture of Polish
  • rural areas in a long term perspective (30-40 years). The study focuses primarily on the formulation of possible development trends of rural areas in the future as well as the identification of environmental factors playing an important role
  • Development ; Economic development ; Local authority ; Poland ; Rural area ; Spatial distribution ; Years 1990-99
  • The article concerns itself with the non-agricultural economic functions present in rural areas of Poland post 1989. The basic objective has been to identify and assess the directions to changes in the functional structure of gminas (local authority
  • , areas), as well as to characterise selected factors underpinning these transformations. Successive chapters discuss the present functional structure of rural areas, the changes there in the years 1988-1999, the spatial distribution of non-agricultural
  • Agricultural product ; Income ; Poland ; Rural area ; Rural population
  • This article is devoted to possibility of development of alternative functions in rural areas. The last ten-year period brought a strengthening of the agricultural function in central and eastern Poland, while the west and parts of the south
  • of services. In areas with a prevailing agricultural function, there has in general been a decline in the significance of productive market-related agriculture, and an increase in its role in the supply of rural inhabitants. - (BJ)
  • Agriculture ; Development ; Poland ; Rural area ; Spatial structure ; Years 1990-99
  • The main aim of the work described here has thus been to gain an acquaintanceship with the changes in the spatial and functional structure of Poland's rural areas that accrued in the determining trends and dynamics to future changes, as well
  • as the possible directions of development of rural areas with particular attention being paid to the factors stimulating or holding up the development of non-agricultural socioeconomic activity. A further aim has thus been to attempt an assessment of the fuctions
  • Agriculture ; Demographic change ; Educational level ; Internal migration ; Poland ; Rural area ; Rural industry ; Rural population