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  • Buried black soils on the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro as a regional carbon storage hotspot
  • Landscapes and soils through time
  • Black soil ; Carbon sequestration ; Ecosystem ; Mountain ; Organic materials ; Palaeosol ; Slope gradient ; Soil properties ; Tanzania ; Tropical rain forest ; Volcano
  • In this study, the AA. investigated in detail the soil organic carbon (SOC) content and SOC stocks in soil profiles (mostly Andosols) along 2 altitudinal transects, situated on both the humid southern slopes and on the drier northern slopes
  • of the Kilimanjaro. These paleosol sequences are characterized by high soil organic carbon contents. SOC stocks per square meter exceed those of typical Andosols and Chernozems. As compared to the SOC storage in the surrounding savannah soils of the Maasai Steppe
  • , the buried black soils constitute a distinctive regional carbon storage hotspot.
  • 2014
  • [b1] Inst. of Soil Science and Soil Geography, Dept. of Soil Physics and Inst. of Geomorphology, Univ., Bayreuth, Allemagne
  • [b2] Inst. of Agronomy and Nutritional Sciences, Soil Biogeochemistry, Martin-Luther Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Allemagne
  • [a2] Soil Science and Soil Protection Group, Univ., Halle, Allemagne
  • [a3] Inst. of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, Univ. of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Allemagne
  • Vegetation type affects soil enzyme activities and microbial functional diversity following re-vegetation of a severely eroded red soil in sub-tropical China
  • China ; Ecological restoration ; Erosion control ; Experiment plot ; Geochemistry ; Jiangxi ; Microbial biomass ; Red soil ; Soil ; Soil erosion ; Soil properties ; Subtropical zone ; Vegetation
  • The aims of this study were to evaluate the restorative effects of re-vegetation and vegetation type on soil enzyme activities and microbial functional diversity of eroded red soil. Soil samples were collected by horizon from eroded soils that had
  • been restored for 18 years. Un-eroded soils planted with these vegetation types and an eroded bare soil served as references. The sampling site was located at the Red Soil Ecological Experiment Station in Jiangxi Province. Soil microbial functional
  • diversity was assessed by the community-level physiological profiles (CLPP) using BioLog Eco-plates. The results suggest that the enzyme activities and microbial functional diversity are determined by the quantity and quality of carbon inputs. Soil enzyme
  • activities and microbial functional diversity as well as soil microbial biomass and physicochemical properties in the restored eroded soil did not completely recover to the levels of the un-eroded reference soil.
  • 2014
  • [b1] State Key Lab. of Soil Sustainable Agriculture, Inst. of Soil Sciences, CAS, Nanjing, Chine
  • Effects of rice-husk ash on soil consistency and compactibility
  • Aggregate ; Agropedology ; China ; Compaction ; Cultivated land ; Experimentation ; Shanghai ; Soil improvement ; Soil moisture ; Soil properties
  • This paper evaluates the effects of rice-husk ash with different rates of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% (v/v) on soil consistency limits (liquid limit, plastic limit) and soil compactibility parameters in Shanghai soils with different textures
  • . It is highlighted that RHA increases the optimum moisture content (OMC) of soil, and decreases the soil compactibility. It is concluded that RHA promotes the aggregate stability, thus improves the workability of soil.
  • 2014
  • [b1] Univ. of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Environmental and Architectural College, Shanghai, Chine
  • Use of soil profile truncation to estimate influence of accelerated erosion on soil cover transformation in young morainic landscapes, North-Eastern Poland
  • Cultivated land ; Digital elevation model ; Forest ; Human impact ; Land use ; Moraine ; North-Eastern Poland ; Poland ; Slope gradient ; Soil erosion ; Soil properties
  • This paper elucidates the influence of accelerated soil erosion on soil cover in young morainic landscapes of North-Eastern Poland (Brodnica Lake District). Detailed pedological investigation were carried out within two study sites (forest
  • and agricultural). A comparison of fully developed forest reference soil pedons with arable soil has been made. Five classes of soil truncation have been distinguished. According to the identified degrees of truncation, maps of soil cover transformation, caused
  • by accelerated erosion, were generated and overlapped on Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Anthropogenic character of soil erosion is proved. The average values of soil truncation is about 40-50 cm. The effect of intensive slope processes is widespread occurrence
  • 2014
  • [b1] Dept. of Soil Science and Landscape Management, Fac of Earth Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Torun, Pologne
  • Red Mediterranean Soils in Jordan : New insights in their origin, genesis, and role as environmental archives
  • Landscapes and soils through time
  • Aeolian features ; Geochemistry ; Jordan ; Palaeo-environment ; Palaeosol ; Pedogenesis ; Red soil ; Soil properties
  • It is disputed whether Terrae Rossae form mainly out of the bedrock residue, from allochthonous material like aerosols, or by isovolumetric replacement. Furthermore, whether they are mainly relic soils or are still forming is subject to debate
  • . These questions were addressed by comparing the geochemistry of several limestone and basalt based Red Mediterranean Soils with Lithosols on sandstone and limestone in Jordan. It is highlighted that basalt and sandstone bedrocks, and local dust sources contribute
  • to soil development. The Red Mediterranean Soils on limestone are mainly derived from Saharan dust. Growing aridity during the Holocene has apparently increased the share of silt while clay deposition and soil development has been reduced. In conclusion
  • , formation of red soils during the Holocene seems very limited, and the Red Mediterranean Soils may represent remains of a paleolandscape.
  • 2014
  • [a2] Soil Science and Soil Protection Group, Univ., Halle, Allemagne
  • [a3] Inst. of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, Univ. of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Allemagne
  • Effects of topography and land use on soil characteristics along the toposequence of Ele watershed in southern Ethiopia
  • Cultivated land ; Ethiopia ; Forest ; Grassland ; Land use ; Soil ; Soil properties ; Southern Ethiopia ; Topography ; Watershed
  • In this paper physicochemical soil properties along the toposequence of the Ele watershed in southern Ethiopia were characterized. Additionally, random soil samples were collected from adjacent cultivated, grassland and forest soils; and 3
  • composites were made for each land use type within the 3 slope classes. It is highlighted that : Topography influenced the morphological and physicochemical properties of the soils; Three major soil groupings were observed at upper, middle and lower slope
  • classes; Changes in land use have also resulted in differences in soil quality indicators; Cultivated soils were low in bases, OC, total nitrogen and available phosphorus.
  • 2014
  • [b2] Dept. of Soil Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
  • [b1] School of Plant and Horticultural Sciences, Univ., Hawassa, Ethiopie
  • [b3] Dept. of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tennessee state Univ., Nashville, Etats-Unis
  • The development of deep soil processes in ancient kurgans of the North Caucasus
  • Landscapes and soils through time
  • Archeological site ; Bronze Age ; Carbonate ; Caucasus ; Chernozem ; Diagenesis ; European part of Russia ; Geochemistry ; Holocene ; Micromorphology ; Palaeosol ; Pedogenesis ; Soil properties
  • to 10 m) and their homogeneous composition (the kurgans were constructed of Chernozemic soil and are underlain by Chernozem) make it possible to study the direction and rate of pedogenetic and diagenetic processes acting at a considerable depth
  • . In these kurgans, deep soil features are represented by calcite, gypsum, and iron concentrations. These deep soil processes differ from soil processes in longer characteristic times. They represent the first stage of the development of the weathering mantle.
  • 2014
  • [a2] Soil Science and Soil Protection Group, Univ., Halle, Allemagne
  • [a3] Inst. of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, Univ. of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Allemagne
  • [b1] Inst. of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscou, Russie, Federation de
  • Spatial and seasonal variations of soil salinity following vegetation restoration in coastal saline land in eastern China
  • China ; Eastern China ; Ecological restoration ; Island ; Saline soil ; Salinity ; Seasonal variation ; Shanghai ; Soil ; Soil moisture ; Soil properties ; Vegetation
  • In Chongmind Island, eastern China, the AA. explored the way vegetation restoration affected the profile distributions of soil moisture and salinity in various seasons in naturally salt-affected coastal saline land. In four types of vegetation, five
  • soil cores were acquired in the 80 cm depth range. Salt profiles showed the higher values in surface soil in control plots, whereas the pattern of soil salinity showed the reverse trend under vegetation. The effect of vegetation restoration
  • on the profile distributions of salt is significant. In control plots, soil moisture and salinity showed a clear seasonal trend. Relative to control plots, the seasonal trend of soil moisture and salinity under vegetation appeared to be complex for no clear trend
  • was observed. It can be concluded that plant communities significantly affect the spatial–temporal distribution of soil salinity. The selection of plant species is important in the reclamation of costal saline land.
  • 2014
  • [b2] Dept. of Geography, College of Resource and Environment Science, East China Normal Univ., Shangai, Chine
  • [b3] College of Geography and Life Science, Univ., Bijie, Chine
  • Soil and vegetation transformation in abandoned vineyards of the Tokaj Nagy-Hill, Hungary
  • Chronosequence ; Hungary ; Land use ; Slope exposure ; Slope gradient ; Soil properties ; Tokaj-Hegyalja ; Vinegrowing area ; Wasteland
  • characteristics, soil physico-chemical characteristics, total organic carbon stocks (TOC stocks), accumulation rates of total organic carbon (TOC accumulation rates), and soil profiles, which were classified according to the World Reference Base (WRB) 2007. Soil
  • 2014
  • [b3] Univ. of Environmental and Life Sciences, Inst. of Soil Science and Environmental Protection, Wrocław, Pologne
  • [b4] Carl von Ossietzky Univ., Inst. for Biology and Environmental Sciences, Dept. for Soil Science, Oldenburg, Allemagne
  • [b2] Dept. of Soil Ecology, Univ., Bayreuth, Allemagne
  • Mineralisation and changes in the fractions of soil organic matter in soils of the permafrost region, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China
  • Carbon cycle ; China ; Climatic change ; Geochemistry ; Organic materials ; Periglacial features ; Permafrost ; Plateau ; Qinghai ; Soil properties ; Tibet
  • To determine the relationship between soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and chemistry in the permafrost region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), 300-day laboratory incubations at 25°C and chemical fractionation were performed to characterise
  • the mineralisation dynamics of organic carbon from soils under 5 vegetation conditions. The respiration rates in wet meadows were the highest. After the incubation period, all 4 fractions of SOM (non-polarity soluble, water soluble, holocellulose and lignin contents
  • ) showed some decline, and the SOM decreased by 16–20 per cent in soils of the steppe, meadow and wet meadow. These results suggest that a large proportion of the organic matter in soils of the permafrost region in the QTP is mineralisable. Based
  • on the changes in chemical fractions of organic matter, it could be determined that soils with higher water-soluble fractions had higher rates of carbon mineralisation, while the mechanisms involved in the respiration of different chemical fractions
  • 2014
  • [b1] Cryosphere Research station on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Key Lab. of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Inst., Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Chine
  • [b2] Graduate Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, Chine
  • Landscapes and soils through time
  • Baleares ; Carbon 13 ; Chronostratigraphy ; Climatic variation ; Isotope analysis ; Mallorca ; Micromorphology ; Oxygen 18 ; Palaeosol ; Pedogenesis ; Quaternary ; Soil properties ; Spain
  • , Pleistocene and Holocene. The sites were analysed in terms of colour, CaCO3, δ13 C and δ18 O isotopes, and micromorphology. The pedostratigraphy reflects more advanced soil developed after polycyclic weathering. The reddening results from polygenesis
  • 2014
  • [b1] Inst. of Crop Science and Resource Conservation (INRES), Soil Science and Soil Ecology, Univ., Bonn, Allemagne
  • [a2] Soil Science and Soil Protection Group, Univ., Halle, Allemagne
  • [a3] Inst. of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, Univ. of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Allemagne
  • Drainage ; Erodibility ; Experimentation ; Infiltration ; Shear stress ; Soil erosion ; Soil properties ; United States of America ; Water erosion
  • The goal of this study was to quantify changes in soil cohesion due to aging and subsurface hydrologic condition using a fluidized bed method. A flume experiment was also used to verify that findings from the fluidized bed experiment translated
  • into measurable changes in soil erodibility. Tests were performed on 3 different soils (a Miami soil, a Cecil soil and Crosby–Miami soil complex). Changes in soil cohesion due to aging and drainage state were successfully detected by the fluidized bed technique
  • . For all soils tested, cohesion developed in a two-stage process where an increase in cohesion with aging duration immediately after the soil was rewetted, was followed by a decrease in cohesion which often started after 24 h of aging. Trends in soil rill
  • erodibility Kr with aging duration measured in the flume experiment were consistent with the two-stage pattern observed in soil cohesion estimates but the legacy effect of suction applied at field capacity faded after 72 h of aging.
  • 2014
  • [b1] Univ. of Nevada Reno, Natural resources and Environment Sciences, Reno, Etats-Unis
  • [b2] USDA-ARS-MWA, National Soil Erosion Research Lab., West Lafayette, Etats-Unis
  • Soil carbon and silicon pools across an un-drained toposequence in central Ohio
  • Carbon ; Catena ; Geochemistry ; Humid environment ; Nitrogen ; Ohio ; Slope gradient ; Soil ; Soil properties ; Soil water ; United States of America
  • This study focused on soil carbon (organic and inorganic) and silicon pools across a soil toposequence encompassing all landscape positions (summit, shoulder, backslope, footslope, and toeslope), and for the soil profile. A soil toposequence
  • , derived from till parent material with an un-drained closed depression, was selected in central Ohio. Pedons were collected from the Gahanna Woods Park. All soil samples were analyzed for selected physical and chemical properties. It is highlighted
  • that the un-drained closed depression enhances the soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation across the integrated toposequence, in particular at the lower landscape positions (footslope and toeslope), and it favors the formation of desired soil structure
  • (granular). Soil total N was correlated with that of SOC across the toposequence and within pedons.
  • 2014
  • [b1] Soil Science dept., College of Agriculture, Univ., Zagazig, Egypte
  • Evaluation of two different soil databases to assess soil erosion sensitivity with MESALES for three areas in Europe and Morocco
  • Comparative study ; Data base ; Europe ; Model ; Morocco ; Research technique ; Soil erosion
  • In this study, the Modèle d'Evaluation Spatiale de l'Aléa Erosion des Sols) MESALES model was applied to 3 large areas in Europe and Morocco, using soil data from the European Soil Database (ESDB) and Digital Soil Map of the World (DSMW) as well
  • as from the newly developed e-SOTER database. Land use data were derived from the Global Land Cover 2000 database, and slope angle from the HYDRO1K DEM. The aim was to evaluate whether the e-SOTER database resulted in better assessment of soil erosion
  • sensitivity than existing data. The comparison of results obtained with existing data and with e-SOTER data showed considerable differences. However, it proved impossible to say which results were better. The fact that the application of different soil
  • databases resulted in quite different results does, however, indicate the importance of using the best available data for evaluation of soil threats. However, a current lack of options to validate soil erosion sensitivity estimates was also identified.
  • 2014
  • [b1] Soil Physics and Land Use team, Alterra, UR, Wageningen, Pays-Bas
  • [b2] INRA, UR0272, UR Science du sol, Centre de recherche, Orléans, France
  • [b3] Soil Geography Team, Alterra, Univ. and research Centre, Wageningen, Pays-Bas
  • Natural recovery of moss-dominated biological soil crusts after surface soil removal and their long-term effects on soil water conditions in a semi-arid environment
  • Agropedology ; Arid area ; China ; Desertification ; Duricrust ; Ecological restoration ; Loess ; Plateau ; Semi-arid area ; Shaanxi ; Soil degradation ; Soil moisture ; Soil water
  • The AA. set up 2 treatments including biological soil crusts (BSCs), natural BSCs without disturbance and disturbed BSCs (the top 30 mm of surface soil, including the BSC layer, was severely disturbed and completely removed), in a semi-arid
  • environment on the Loess Plateau of China. Over the succeeding years, the natural recovery process of BSCs was qualitatively described and the soil water content at 0–90 cm depth of the two treatments was consecutively monitored. The results showed
  • that : it is possible to recover moss-dominated biological soil crusts after disturbance; Crust disturbance decreased soil moisture and the effect gradually weakened with time; Crust disturbance decreased surface soil moisture but increased deep soil moisture; Crust
  • disturbance degraded soil water conditions in the following 3–4 years. Therefore, artificial destruction of crusts in semi-arid region should not be recommended.
  • 2014
  • [b1] Beijing Research and Development Center for Grass and Environment, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing, Chine
  • [b2] State Key Lab. of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loes Plateau, Inst. of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS, Univ., Yangling, Chine
  • Effect of rice husk biochar and coal fly ash on some physical properties of expansive clayey soil (Vertisol)
  • Agropedology ; China ; Northern China ; Porosity ; Soil ; Soil improvement ; Soil properties ; Soil water ; Vertisol
  • of an expansive clayey soil (Vertisol). Results indicate that : the RHB promotes the formation of macroaggregates and resists aggregate slaking; RHB and CFA change the pore size distribution and increase larger pores of soil; RHB and CFA decrease the tensile
  • strength and coefficient of linear extensibility (COLE) of clayey soil. The RHB and CFA are therefore able to improve the physical quality and swelling–shrinkage status of expansive clayey soils, being a potential soil amendment for improving poor physical
  • characteristics of the clayey soil.
  • 2014
  • [b1] Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Subtropical Soil and Plant Nutrition, College of Environmental and Resources Sciences, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, Chine
  • The evidence of lateral podzolization in sandy soils of Northern Poland
  • Landscapes and soils through time
  • Catena ; Fluvial terrace ; Fluvioglacial features ; Geochemistry ; Northern Poland ; Pedogenesis ; Podsol ; Podsolisation ; Poland ; Sandy soil ; Soil properties
  • Evidence of slope-scale element translocation (lateral podzolization) has been documented in sandy areas of Northern Poland. Landscape position and features of the studied soils suggest inter-pedon translocation of organic matter, iron and aluminum
  • of more complex morphology, small closed depressions act as geochemical traps, where compounds leached from the upper slope soils can accumulate. Radiocarbon dating carried out on a buried Entic Podzol found in one of the profiles shows that the process
  • 2014
  • [a2] Soil Science and Soil Protection Group, Univ., Halle, Allemagne
  • [a3] Inst. of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, Univ. of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Allemagne
  • Response of temporal variation of soil moisture to vegetation restoration in semi-arid Loess Plateau, China
  • Arid area ; China ; Ecological restoration ; Experiment plot ; Land use ; Semi-arid area ; Soil moisture ; Sustainable development ; Vegetation
  • In this study, the soil moisture among 8 typical types of vegetation is investigated and compared during 3 rainy seasons to evaluate the ecohydrological effect of vegetation restoration in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. The results show
  • that soil moisture content decreases drastically after vegetation restoration, with no significant difference in near-surface soil moisture among the vegetation types but significant differences in the sub-surface and deep soil layers. It is highlighted
  • that introduced vegetation consumes excessive amount of soil moisture and induces temporally stable soil desiccation, threatening the sustainability of vegetation restoration. The study results suggest that the current planting density of introduced vegetation
  • is too high in specific cases and should be optimized with local soil moisture conditions in semi-arid regions.
  • 2014
  • [b1] State Key Lab. of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, CAS, Beijing, Chine
  • [b3] School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, Chine
  • Soil salinization research in China : Advances and prospects
  • Adaptation ; Agropedology ; China ; Environment ; Environmental degradation ; Environmental risk ; Research ; Saline soil ; Salinisation ; Soil
  • The AA. summarize the framework for soil salinization research in China over the past 70 years, assess the weaknesses of existing research in both a domestic and international context, highlight the trends and key findings of global research about
  • saline soils over the past 30 years, and propose six major fields and directions for future research on saline soil.
  • 2014
  • [b1] School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Chine
  • The effect of windthrow disturbances on biochemical and chemical soil properties in the northern mountainous forests of Iran
  • Aeolian features ; Biogeochemistry ; Environmental degradation ; Forest ; Iran ; Mazandaran ; Mountain ; Soil ; Soil properties ; Tree uprooting ; Wind
  • In order to study the specific effects of aeolian disturbance on soils in northern Iran, research was conducted to evaluate soil microbial respiration and nitrogen mineralization in places where differences in microtopography occur due
  • was chosen for this research, with 34 uprooted trees selected for detailed study. Statistical comparisons revealed that the highest soil microbial respiration and net N-mineralization occurred in pit bottoms. Mound tops showed the lowest levels of soil
  • microbial respiration and net N mineralization. Indications of aeolian processes indicate that windthrow events create different microsites, thereby influencing the specific micro-scale soil characteristics and ultimately forest biodiversity.
  • 2014
  • [b1] Dept. of Forestry, Fac. of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares Univ., Noor, Iran, Republique Islamique d'
  • [b3] Dept. of Forestry, Univ. of Natural Resources and Agriculture Sciences, Sari, Iran, Republique Islamique d'