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  • Soil genesis and classification
  • Bibliography ; History of sciences ; Pedogenesis ; Soil ; Soil classification ; Soil science ; Teaching ; Textbook ; United States of America
  • Bibliographie ; Classification des sols ; Enseignement ; Etats-Unis ; Histoire des sciences ; Manuel ; Pédogenèse ; Pédologie ; Sol
  • Some 50 years ago the American soil scientists Stan Buol and Francis Hole hatched idea for the book Soil Genesis and Classification. Now 6 editions of the book have been published and it has become a standard text book in teaching soil science
  • and pedology in the USA. This paper reviews how the book evolved over time, and relates the text to trends and developments in soil formation and soil classification.
  • 2013
  • [b1] Univ. of Wisconsin, Dep. of Soil Science, Madison, Etats-Unis
  • Can occurrence of soil hydrophobicity promote the increase of aggregates stability ?
  • Aggregate ; Brazil ; Experimentation ; Organic materials ; Repellency ; Rio Grande do Sul ; Soil ; Soil erosion ; Soil properties ; Soil water ; Subtropical zone
  • The soil hydrophobicity can be understood as soil water repellency or difficulty in wetness. This phenomenon is associated with the covering soil particles and hydrophobic organic compounds reducing the soil sorptivity and hence infiltration
  • of water. The aims of this study were to determine the level of hydrophobicity in the soil and assess its relationship with resistance and size distribution of water stable aggregates, particle size distribution and organic matter content of different soils
  • in southern Brazil. Undisturbed soil samples were collected in different soil layers, 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm, to determine soil sorptivity, geometric mean diameter and aggregate stability index while granulometric composition and organic matter content were
  • determined using disturbed soil samples.
  • 2013
  • [b3] Soil, Crop and Environmental Sciences Dept., Ekiti State Univ., Ado Ekiti, Nigeria
  • [b1] Soil Dept., Federal Univ., Santa Maria, Bresil
  • [b2] Forestry Sciences Dept., Federal Univ., Santa Maria, Bresil
  • Soil carbon source and accumulation over 12,000 years in a semi-natural Miscanthus sinensis grassland in southern Japan
  • Biofuel ; Biogeochemistry ; Carbon ; Carbon sequestration ; Grassland ; Japan ; Kyushu ; Phytolith ; Soil ; Soil properties ; Volcanic soil
  • Soil carbon stock source was determined in 2 soil profiles on Miscanthus sinensis grassland at the Aso-Kuju National Park in Kumamoto Prefecture, Kyushu. Isotopic analysis demonstrated that 66.8% of soil C was derived from a C4 source. Radiocarbon
  • -ages of soil fractions were highly correlated with soil depth (R2 = 0.99). Over a 12,000 year history of land use at the Aso caldera, Miscanthus sinensis was found to be a major contributor to soil carbon and a sink for atmospheric CO2, which, under
  • certain constraints, has implications for the potential sequestration of soil carbon under Miscanthus in cultivated conditions.
  • 2013
  • [b5] Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japon
  • [b6] Field Science Center, Fac. of Agriculture, Univ., Miyazaki, Japon
  • [b7] Dep. of Crop Sciences, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, Etats-Unis
  • [b8] Dep. of Plant and Wildlife Sciences, Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Etats-Unis
  • The effect of organic matter on aggregation under different soil management practices in a vineyard in an extremely humid year
  • Aggregate ; Agricultural practice ; Agropedology ; Duricrust ; Experimentation ; Moisture ; Organic materials ; Slovak Republic ; Soil properties ; Vine
  • This study evaluates the effect of soil organic matter on soil structure stability under different soil management practices in Rendzic Leptosol, in an extremely humid year. In 2006, an experiment of the different management practices
  • in a productive vineyard was established in the locality of Nitra-Dražovce (Slovakia). Soil samples were collected every month, during the year 2010. The results showed that the aggregation process and soil structure stability were mainly dependent on the stable
  • form of soil organic matter or the physically protected soil organic matter inside of aggregates in all soil management practices in a vineyard. In the treatment with plowed farmyard manure, the soil structure stability decreased, during 2010
  • . In this case, humic substances stability had a statistically significant influence on soil structure stability. The lower the values of color quotient of humic substances in soil were, the lesser was the decrease in soil structure stability.
  • 2013
  • [b1] Dep. of Soil Science, Fac. of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak Univ. of Agriculture, Nitra, Slovaquie
  • [b2] Dep. of Chemistry, Fac. of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Slovak Univ. of Agriculture, Nitra, Slovaquie
  • The erubáz volcanic soil of Hungary : Mineralogy and classification
  • Classification ; Clay mineral ; Hungary ; Mineralogy ; Pedogenesis ; Soil ; Soil properties ; Taxonomy ; Volcanic soil
  • The erubáz soil, a shallow soil influenced by volcanic parent rocks is examined with special emphasis on its clay content and clay-mineral-composition. Several rofiles at 7 study areas and with 4 different parent material types are analysed. Bulk
  • soil mineralogical and clay-mineralogical properties are examined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). According to the mineralogical analysis the presence of the unstable mafic silicates indicates that the composition of the parent rock is still well
  • reflected in the examined soil profiles. This study revealed that the erubáz soil type is not as homogeneous as it was suggested before. These shallow soils are in the early stage of their pedogenic evolution. Prevalence of illite is suggested followed
  • 2013
  • [b1] Geographical Inst., Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hongrie
  • [b2] Inst. for Geological and Geochemical Research, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hongrie
  • Chronosequential alterations in soil organic matter during initial development of coastal salt marsh soils at the southern North Sea
  • Chronosequence ; Coastal environment ; Coastal marsh ; Germany ; Niedersachsen ; North Sea ; Organic materials ; Pedogenesis ; Soil properties ; Spatial analysis
  • This study was conducted in the coastal zone located in Cäciliengroden, Jadebusen Bay (North Germany). The aim was to examine the changes in organic matter properties along a salt marsh soil chronosequence. Three soil profiles were located in low
  • , middlehigh and high marsh zones, between the mud flat tidal area and the dike. The AA. propose a pattern of spatial changes in properties of salt marsh soils along the studied chronosequence. The results lead to the conclusion that some organic matter
  • properties (C:N, humic to fulvic acid ratios and aromaticity of the humic acids) are good indicators for the extent of development of the studied soils.
  • 2013
  • [b1] Dept. of Soil Science and Landscape Management, Fac of Earth Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Torun, Pologne
  • [b2] Dept. of Soil Science, Inst. of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky Univ., Oldenburg, Allemagne
  • Paleo-pedological record of the Rocourt pedosequence at Veldwezelt–Hezerwater (Belgian Pleistocene loess belt): Part 2 — Soil formation
  • Belgium ; Biogeochemistry ; Cryoturbation ; Loess ; Micromorphology ; Palaeo-environment ; Pedogenesis ; Pedostratigraphy ; Pleistocene ; Quaternary ; Soil properties ; Wallonie
  • The aim of this paper is to establish a detailed paleopedological record of soil forming processes at Veldwezelt-Hezerwater, in order to contribute to a better understanding of Eemian and early-Weichselian soil formation and to evaluate contrasting
  • hypotheses on the formation of the Rocourt pedosequence. Based on soil micromorphological features, total element contents, iron fractions and carbon content a reconstruction was made of the polygenetic formation of the Rocourt soil. Results indicate
  • that only by combining multiple soil features, consistent information could be obtained. Furthermore, this study shows that cryogenic processes, transport of colloids, iron dynamics, redox-conditions, organic matter formation and biological activity were
  • major soil forming processes. The hypothesis of 6 major stages of soil formation under varying climatic conditions was most supported by the data.
  • 2013
  • [b3] Dep. of Geology and Soil Science, Univ., Ghent, Belgique
  • [b2] Dep. of Earth and Environmental Science, K.U., Leuven, Belgique
  • [b5] Earth System Science, Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Univ., Wageningen, Pays-Bas
  • Map scale effects of soil databases on modeling organic carbon dynamics for paddy soils of China
  • Biogeochemistry ; Carbon ; Carbon cycle ; China ; Cultivated land ; Data base ; Geochemistry ; Model ; Scale ; Soil ; Soil properties ; Thematic map
  • To improve the understanding of map scale associated uncertainty, the DeNitrification–DeComposition (DNDC) model were parameterized with 3 soil polygon-based databases at scales of 1:1,000,000, 1:4,000,000, and 1:14,000,000 to simulate SOC stocks (0
  • –30 cm) for paddy soils of China and their changes from 1980 to 2008. It is showed that SOC stock estimates decreased as map scale decreased from 1:4,000,000 to 1:14,000,000. The multi-scale simulation results indicate that the application of 1
  • :1,000,000 scale soil polygon-based database could reduce the inaccuracy of national SOC stock estimates and contribute to improved assessment of continental and global carbon balance.
  • 2013
  • [b1] State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Inst. of Soil Sciences, CAS, Nanjing, Chine
  • [b2] Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, Chine
  • [b4] Shool of Geodesy and Geomatics, Anhui Univ. of Science and Technology, Huainan, Chine
  • Effects of diatomite on soil consistency limits and soil compactibility
  • Agropedology ; Compaction ; Diatomite ; Experimentation ; Soil ; Soil improvement ; Soil properties ; Turkey
  • The Atterberg limits and the Proctor compaction test parameters are related to agronomy with regard to compaction hazard for soils and tillage. This laboratory study, conducted on samples collected in the agricultural fields of Erzurum, Turkey
  • , was aimed to assess effects of diatomite with different rates on soil consistency limits and soil compactibility parameters in soils with different textures. The results of this study showed that diatomite application significantly enhanced soil mechanical
  • properties and reduced soil compactibility. It is clearly indicated that application of diatomite lead the soils more strength to mechanical forces, since increasing the water content at OMC over LL and PL may imply that soil is more easily tilled in higher
  • 2013
  • [b1] Atatürk Univ., Fac. of Agriculture, Dept. of Soil Science, Erzurum, Turquie
  • Nd isotope evidence for dust accretion to a soil chronosequence in Hainan Island
  • Aeolian dust ; Aerosol ; Biogeochemistry ; China ; Geochemistry ; Hainandao ; Isotope analysis ; Soil ; Soil properties
  • Hainan soils contain a mixture of material derived from in situ weathering of parent material plus atmospheric inputs dominated by continental dust. The AA. use Nd isotope geochemistry to evaluate the impact of continental dust on a chronosequence
  • of Hainan soils. On the basis of the geomorphic stability sites, the AA. think that the decrease of dust inputs due to climate changes and the loss of dust due to weathering are the dominant loss mechanisms for dust and lead to underestimates of time
  • -averaged dust deposition rates in the old sites. They calculate long term dust accretion rates to quantify the deposition. The results also underscore the potential for neodymium isotopes to constrain the origin of soils and paleosols.
  • 2013
  • [b1] State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Inst. of Soil Sciences, CAS, Nanjing, Chine
  • Soil map update : Procedure and problems encountered for the island of Réunion
  • Island ; Réunion ; Soil ; Soil classification ; Soil map ; Soil properties ; Soil science ; Tropical zone
  • On Reunion, the AA. undertook an overview of the old existing soil studies. This paper describes (1) the procedure used to update the soil maps and the toposequence acquired with the old French Commission de Pédologie et de Cartographie des Sols
  • (CPCS) classification system, without any new information, using the World Reference Base for soil resources (WRB); (2) the construction of a new soil map drawn up with completely new information, and (3) a comparison of these 2 approaches. Without any
  • new information, incorrect updates were observed for both the determination of Reference Soil Group (RSG) and the qualifiers. Despite the field descriptions, the lack of any analytical determinations on the old soil studies was a source of updating
  • errors for the more developed soils formerly qualified as ferrallitic. In order to update limits for Andic properties and Andosols, the systematic use of analytical determinations has to be considered for updating old soil maps, as the diagnostic criteria
  • 2013
  • Arid area ; China ; Collapse structures ; Experimentation ; Gully erosion ; Model ; Rill wash ; Scouring ; Soil erosion ; Valley ; Yunnan
  • The process of collapse of overhanging layers in man-made soil bodies containing different soil layers was investigated by flow scouring experiments. A soil body composed of a lower sandy layer and an upper layer of clay soil was evaluated
  • , and a field soil profile was modelled in a test tank with an open side. The results revealed that the occurrence of the collapse of overhanging layers could be attributed to the development of a scour hole in the open side; the greater the flow rate, the lower
  • to the flow rate, implicating that the collapse is more dependent on rainfall (runoff) time rather than rainfall (runoff) intensity in the studied region. The cantilever model was modified to predict the stability of the overhanging soil body. It provided
  • a satisfactory explanation of the static balance of the weight of the soil as well as the tensile strength.
  • 2013
  • [b1] Inst. of Agricultural Environment and Resources, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Science, Kunming, Chine
  • [b3] Research Inst. of Tropical Eco-agricultural Science, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yuanmou, Chine
  • [b4] Key Lab. of Mountain Hazards and Earth Surface Processes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Chine
  • Effectiveness of soil conservation measures in two contrasting landscape units of South Eastern Tanzania
  • Agricultural practice ; Erodibility ; Erosion control ; Land use ; Landscape unit ; Soil erosion ; Soil properties ; Tanzania ; Tropical zone
  • The AA. derived RUSLE (revised universal soil loss equation) factors for several soil conservation measures based on 3 seasons of field plot measurements (2008-2010), in 2 contrasting landscape units of South Eastern Tanzania. This study points
  • to the importance of understanding differences between soil types and landscape units when assessing potential soil erosion. On the Makonde plateau, rainfall erosivity was higher than on the inland plains. The differences between the C factor for maize
  • , and for maize with crop residues, as well as the differences between the P factors for lemon grass strips and ridges and furrows indicate that although soils of the Makonde plateau are more susceptible to soil erosion, these soils are also more responsive
  • to soil conservation measures compared to soils of the inland plains. Farmers' local technique of making ridges and furrows is particularly effective. Deforestation for agriculture hence bears the risk of increasing soil erosion rates; however, this risk
  • 2013
  • [b2] Dep. of Earth and Environmental Science, K.U., Leuven, Belgique
  • Estimating wet soil aggregate stability from easily available properties in a highly mountainous watershed
  • Aggregate ; Central Iran ; Comparative study ; Iran ; Methodology ; Model ; Mountain ; Soil erosion ; Soil properties ; Topography ; Vegetation index ; Water erosion ; Watershed
  • for prediction of soil wet aggregate stability (as quantified by the mean weight diameter, MWD) in a highly mountainous watershed (Bazoft watershed, southwestern Iran). Three different sets of available data including soil properties alone, topographic attributes
  • and vegetation index, and a combination of soil properties and topographic and vegetation attributes were used as inputs. Discussions of advantages and disadvantages are given in different point of view for all the methods. In conclusion, the ANN and ANFIS models
  • showed greater potential in predicting soil aggregate stability from soil and site characteristics, whereas linear regression methods did not perform well.
  • 2013
  • [b1] Dept. of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr Univ., Rafsanjan, Iran, Republique Islamique d'
  • [b2] Dept. of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Univ. of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, Republique Islamique d'
  • Effect of biochar on soil properties and erosion potential in a highly weathered soil
  • Agropedology ; Erosion control ; Experiment plot ; Rainfall simulation ; Soil erosion ; Soil improvement ; Soil properties ; Taiwan ; Water erosion
  • incubation time. A simulated rainfall event was performed to estimate soil loss for all treatments at the end of the incubation time. Experimental results indicate that applying biochar improved the physicochemical and biological properties of the highly
  • weathered soils. A 5% application rate of biochar is considered as suitable for highly weathered soil because this application rate efficiently improves soil physicochemical properties and reduces soil loss.
  • 2013
  • [b1] Dept. of Soil and Water Conservation, National Univ. of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan, Province de Chine
  • Algae influence the hydrophysical parameters of a sandy soil
  • Soil water repellency
  • Algae ; Dune ; Duricrust ; Experimentation ; Infiltration ; Repellency ; Sandy soil ; Slovak Republic ; Soil ; Soil properties
  • Biological soil crusts have a major effect on water flow in soils. Two study sites, located at a pine-forest glade covered with a biological soil crust, formed the basis of this study. The sand soil at the surface (Glade soil) was compared
  • to a control soil (Pure sand) with limited impact of vegetation or organic matter, occurring at 50 cm depth beneath a glade area. The hydrophysical parameters were substantially different between the 2 surfaces. The growth of artificial algal crusts resulted
  • 2013
  • [b1] Inst. of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovaquie
  • [b3] Dept. of Botany, Fac. of Natural Sciences, Comenius Univ., Bratislava, Slovaquie
  • [b4] Inst. of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lublin, Pologne
  • Impacts of inorganic ions and temperature on lead adsorption onto variable charge soils
  • Geochemistry ; Heavy metals ; Lead ; Pollution ; Soil ; Soil properties ; Temperature
  • The effect of inorganic ions and temperature on lead (Pb2+) adsorption was evaluated on 3 acidic soils : yellow-brown soil (YBS), latosol soil (LS), and lateritic red soil (LRS). The results showed that : the adsorption of Pb2+ was greater
  • in the presence of SO42− than other ions; The increase of K+ and Ca2+ concentrations reduced the adsorption of Pb2+; Pb2+ adsorption was more pronounced in the yellow brown soil than in other soils. Pb2+ adsorption on soils was more favorable at 5–25 °C than at 35
  • 2013
  • [b2] Soil Science Dept., Fac. of Agriculture, Benha Univ., Kalyoubia, Egypte
  • Using palm-mat geotextiles for soil conservation : II. Effects on in situ soil particle size distribution and nutrient concentration
  • England ; Experiment plot ; Geotextile ; Grain size distribution ; Nutrient ; Shropshire ; Soil ; Soil conservation ; Soil properties ; United Kingdom
  • , with duplicate treatments :(1) bare soil; (2) permanent grass; (3) bare soil with 1 m Borassus-mat buffer zones at the lower end of the plots; (4) bare soil with 1 m Buriti-mat buffer zones at the lower end of the plots; and (5) completely-covered with Borassus
  • mats. The AA. conclude that despite significant (P < 0.05) decreases in soil clay and total Ca contents, use of Borassus mats as buffer strips was very successful in conserving or improving other selected soil properties.
  • 2013
  • [b1] School of applied Sciences, Univ., Wolverhampton, Royaume-Uni
  • The estimation of soil organic carbon distribution and storage in a small catchment area of the Loess Plateau
  • Carbon ; China ; Flow ; Land use ; Loess ; Plateau ; Shaanxi ; Soil ; Watershed
  • In this study, the organic carbon storage and density distribution characteristics of the soil in the Zhifanggou catchment on the Loess Plateau were studied based on field investigations, laboratory measurement, and geostatistics analysis
  • . The landuse within the catchment was divided into 4 types : farmland, grassland, shrubland, and woodland. It is showed that the soil organic carbon density for different landuse types follows the trend shrubland > woodland > grassland > farmland. In the entire
  • catchment, the proportion of average soil organic carbon density decreases with soil depth. The spatial distribution of the soil organic carbon density is closely related to the landuse types and topography. The relationship between soil depth and total
  • 2013
  • [b1] State Key Lab. of Soil Erosion and Dry Land Farming on the Loess Plateau, Inst. of Soil and Water Conservation, CAS and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling, Chine
  • [b2] Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, Chine
  • [b3] Inst. of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A and F Univ., Yangling, Chine
  • Freshwater diversions as an ecosystem management tool for maintaining soil organic matter accretion in coastal marshes
  • Marsh soil accretion processes were examined at 12 locations in fresh and brackish marshes in Louisiana's northern Barataria Basin estuary. Sedimentation rates were determined by 137 Cs. Soil structure and accretion were controlled primarily
  • by organic matter accumulation rather than mineral sediment deposition with water and entrapped gases occupying the majority of the soil volume. Such organic-based fresh and brackish marsh soil are more fragile than mineral based marsh soils and are subject
  • salinities. This hydrologic management measure should benefit and extend the stability of the studied marsh sites encouraging continued vegetation growth and soil organic matter accumulation.
  • 2013
  • [b2] School of Plant, Environmental, and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, Etats-Unis
  • [b1] Dep. of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, School of the Coast and Environment, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, Etats-Unis