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  • Pebbly versus bouldery rock glaciers : morphology, structure and processes
  • Alps (The) ; Geophysics ; Glacier ; Glacier dynamics ; Mountain ; Permafrost ; Rock glacier ; Stratigraphy ; Switzerland
  • Alpes ; Dynamique glaciaire ; Glacier ; Glacier rocheux ; Géophysique ; Montagne ; Pergélisol ; Stratigraphie ; Suisse
  • This paper compares the 2 types of rock glaciers in the Swiss Alps in terms of morphology and structure. Discussion of the processes.
  • Rock glaciers : II models and mechanisms
  • Classification ; Creep ; Earth surface processes ; Glacier ; Glacier dynamics ; Glaciology ; Ice ; Mountain ; Permafrost ; Rock glacier ; Talus;Slope scree;Slide rocks ; Terminology
  • Classification ; Creep ; Dynamique glaciaire ; Eboulis ; Glace ; Glacier ; Glacier rocheux ; Glaciologie ; Géomorphodynamique ; Montagne ; Permafrost ; Terminologie
  • This second part of a review deals with the mechanisms of rock glacier formation and flow. The AA. first discuss terminological and classification problems associated with rock glaciers and dynamic nature of rock glaciers. The third part concludes
  • this series of papers by discussing the role and significance of rock glaciers in mountain geomorphology, glaciology and environmental reconstructions.
  • Debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers in the Nanga Parbat Himalaya, Pakistan
  • Glacier ; Glacier dynamics ; High mountain ; Himalaya ; Meltwater ; Pakistan ; Remote sensing ; Rock glacier
  • Dynamique glaciaire ; Eau de fonte ; Glacier ; Glacier rocheux ; Haute montagne ; Himalaya ; Pakistan ; Télédétection
  • The origin and mobilization of the extensive debris cover associated with the glaciers of the Nanga Parbat Himalaya is complex. The AA. propose a mechanism by which glaciers can form rock glaciers through inefficiency of sediment transfer from
  • glacier ice to meltwater. They document with maps, satellite images, and field observations the probable evolution of part of a slow and inefficient glacier into a rock glacier at the margins of Sachen Glacier in c. 50 years, as well as several other
  • A rock glacier/debris-covered glacier system at Galena Creek, Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming
  • Special issue : the geomorphic and climatic significance of rock glaciers
  • Geochronology ; Glacier ; Glacier advance ; Moraine ; Palaeoclimatology ; Permafrost ; Rock glacier ; United States of America ; Wyoming
  • Avancée du glacier ; Etats-Unis ; Glacier ; Glacier rocheux ; Géochronologie ; Moraine ; Paléoclimatologie ; Pergélisol ; Wyoming
  • At Galena Creek, the ice/debris system has alternated between rock glacier and debris-covered glacier modes due to changes in the size of the accumulation area. These results have important implications for paleoclimatic studies of the ice
  • in the Galena Creek Rock Glacier.
  • The Hydrological significance of rock glaciers
  • Amérique du Sud ; Andes ; Glacier ; Glacier rocheux ; Géographie de l'Amérique ; Typologie
  • Différents types de glaciers rocheux des Andes.
  • Degradation of talus-derived rock glaciers in the Upper Engadin, Swiss Alps
  • Alps (The) ; Classification ; Geophysics ; Mountain ; Periglacial features ; Permafrost ; Rock glacier ; Soil temperature ; Switzerland
  • Alpes ; Classification ; Glacier rocheux ; Géophysique ; Montagne ; Pergélisol ; Périglaciaire ; Suisse ; Température du sol
  • This study aims at evaluating changes in the morphology and structure of rock glaciers with permafrost degradation. For this purpose, morphology, structure and thermal conditions are compared between active, inactive and relict rock glaciers
  • in the Upper Engadin, where the 3 types of rock glaciers co-exist within a small mountain area. On the basis of 109 rock glacier investigations (mapping, morphological parameters, temperature measurements and geophysical soundings), processes accompanying
  • permafrost degradation in rock glaciers are discussed.
  • Rock glacier nomenclature: a re-assessment
  • Cirque ; Classification ; Geomorphogenesis ; Glacier ; Mountain ; Periglacial features ; Permafrost ; Rock glacier
  • Cirque glaciaire ; Classification ; Glacier ; Glacier rocheux ; Géomorphogenèse ; Montagne ; Pergélisol ; Périglaciaire
  • Several contentions issues have arisen from rock glacier nomenclature, for example whether the term rock glacier implies genesis from glacial ice or from permafrost. The situation is compounded since rock glacier classification may be based
  • on several different parameters, some of which are measured and quantified, others inferred. These include: gross morphology, dynamics, processes of formation, location, internal characteristics, thermal regime and age. The distinction is made between rock
  • glaciers (sensu stricto), which follows the original descriptions and typology of the early years of the 20th century, and protalus lobes.
  • Decadal and millennial velocities of rock glaciers, Selwyn Mountains, Canada
  • Special issue : the geomorphic and climatic significance of rock glaciers
  • Canada ; Glacial flow ; Glacier ; Glacier advance ; Lichenometry ; Rock glacier ; Yukon
  • Avancée du glacier ; Canada ; Ecoulement glaciaire ; Glacier ; Glacier rocheux ; Lichénométrie ; Yukon
  • The intent of this work is to : 1) present surface velocities on 15 rock glaciers averaged over 12 years (1983-1995) in the Selwyn Mountains; 2) calculate long-term velocities using rock glacier length and lichen age; 3) compare the velocities
  • The geochemical record in rock glaciers
  • Special issue : the geomorphic and climatic significance of rock glaciers
  • Deuterium ; Geochemistry ; Glacier ; Meltwater ; Model ; Oxygen 18 ; Palaeoclimatology ; Rock glacier ; United States of America ; Wyoming
  • Deutérium ; Eau de fonte ; Etats-Unis ; Glacier ; Glacier rocheux ; Géochimie ; Modèle ; Oxygène 18 ; Paléoclimatologie ; Wyoming
  • In this paper, the AA. discuss stable isotope and stratigraphic data from an ice core obtained from a rock glacier at Galena Creek, northwestern Wyoming, USA. They have presented new, independent evidence that the Galena Creek rock glacier
  • is genetically a temperate alpine glacier. These findings show that the Galena Creek rock glacier, and perhaps many other rock glaciers, are essentially debris-covered glaciers. The AA. suggest that rock glaciers represent an untapped archive of old glacier ice
  • Advance mechanisms of rock glaciers
  • Alps (The) ; Creep ; Glacier dynamics ; Mountain ; Research technique ; Rock glacier ; Switzerland
  • Alpes ; Dynamique glaciaire ; Glacier rocheux ; Montagne ; Reptation ; Suisse ; Technique de recherche
  • In this contribution, an approach to measure mass balance and transport within rock glacier fronts is presented. The technique is applied to Gruben and Suvretta rock glaciers, Swiss Alps. The results confirm a conveyor belt-like advance mechanism
  • Avalanche-derived rock glaciers in Svalbard
  • Arctic Region ; Avalanche ; Model ; Periglacial features ; Permafrost ; Rock glacier ; Snow ; Spitsbergen ; Svalbard
  • Arctique ; Avalanche ; Glacier rocheux ; Modèle ; Neige ; Pergélisol ; Périglaciaire ; Spitsbergen ; Svalbard
  • Visual year-round observations have shown that snow avalanches are driving the formation of rock glaciers near the glacier Larsbreen in central Svalbard. This model appeas consistent with information on the origin and geometry of internal structures
  • previously derived by indirect geophysical means on this and other rock glaciers in Svalbard, and on rock glaciers elsewhere. Avalanche-nourished rock glaciers are expected to exhibit a regional downwind preferred orientation.
  • Rock glaciers
  • Amérique du Sud ; Andes ; Forme fossile ; Genèse ; Glacier ; Glacier rocheux ; Glaciologie ; Géographie physique ; Montagne ; Périglaciaire ; Typologie
  • Rock glaciers in the South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica
  • Aerial photography ; Antarctica ; Geochronology ; Holocene ; Inventory ; Palaeo-environment ; Periglacial features ; Photointerpretation ; Rock glacier ; Sea level
  • Antarctique ; Glacier rocheux ; Géochronologie ; Holocène ; Inventaire ; Niveau marin ; Paléo-environnement ; Photo-interprétation ; Photographie aérienne ; Périglaciaire
  • This paper analyzes the results of an inventory of rock glaciers and protalus lobes in the South Shetland Islands. The work is based on aerial photo-interpretation, field recognition and measurements, and estimations of volumes, debris transport
  • and talus production using Barch's methodology. Three groups of rock glaciers can be recognised : those immediate postdating the last major ice recession, rock glaciers younger than 2000 years BP but pre-dating the Little Ice Age (LIA), and rock glaciers
  • Rock glacier dynamics in a marginal periglacial high mountain environment : flow, movement (1991-2000) and structure of the Argualas rock glacier, the Pyrenees
  • Creep ; Geophysics ; Mountain ; Periglacial features ; Pyrénées ; Rock glacier ; Sedimentology ; Spain ; Years 1990-99
  • Années 1990 ; Espagne ; Glacier rocheux ; Géophysique ; Montagne ; Pyrénées ; Périglaciaire ; Reptation ; Sédimentologie
  • This paper presents the results of detailed studies on the dynamics of the Argualas rock glacier in the Pyrenees from 1991 to 2000. The aim is to provide a better understanding of the surface movement and dynamics of the tongue-shaped rock glacier
  • A glacial interpretation for the origin and formation of the Marinet Rock Glacier, Alpes Maritimes, France
  • Special issue : the geomorphic and climatic significance of rock glaciers
  • Alpes du Sud ; Alps (The) ; France ; Geophysics ; Glacial features ; Glacial flow ; Glacier ; Model ; Moraine ; Permafrost ; Photogrammetry ; Rock glacier
  • Alpes ; Alpes du Sud ; Ecoulement glaciaire ; France ; Glaciaire ; Glacier ; Glacier rocheux ; Géophysique ; Modèle ; Moraine ; Pergélisol ; Photogrammétrie
  • Rock glaciers of the Southern French Alps, specifically the Marinet Rock Glacier, are commonly thought to have apermafrost origin. However, results from ground surveys, relationships between debris and ice input, lichen dating and historical
  • Rock glaciers in Svalbard. Tentative dating and inferred long-term velocities
  • Arctic Region ; Cold area ; Dating ; Glacier ; Lichenometry ; Moraine ; Rock glacier ; Slope dynamics ; Spitsbergen ; Svalbard ; Tectonics
  • Arctique ; Datation ; Dynamique de versant ; Glacier ; Glacier rocheux ; Lichénométrie ; Moraine ; Spitsbergen ; Svalbard ; Tectonique ; Zone froide
  • A long-term approach based on detailed mapping and lichenometry provides additional information concerning talus-foot rock glaciers overstepping raised beaches in Svalbard. Their regional distribution is primarily controlled by the tectonic pattern
  • and especially by the network of major thrusting faults. Tentative dating of the start of the rock glaciers movement combined with data on their longitudinal development allowed to infer average long-term rates of rock glacier movement and to compare them
  • The morphological features and environmental conditions of rock glaciers in Tianshan Mountains
  • China ; Geochronology ; Glacier ; High mountain ; Moraine ; Mountain ; Periglacial features ; Permafrost ; Photointerpretation ; Rock glacier ; Slope ; Xinjiang
  • Chine ; Glacier ; Glacier rocheux ; Géochronologie ; Haute montagne ; Montagne ; Moraine ; Pergélisol ; Photo-interprétation ; Périglaciaire ; Versant ; Xinjiang
  • Rock glaciers are developed at permafrost areas of periglacial environment in Tianshan Mountains. Based on field surveying and air-photo interpretation, the paper discusses the shape, characteristics of supply area, formation conditions
  • and environmental differentiations of rock glaciers at head area of Urmqi River in Kalawuchen Range and the head areas of Touado River and Danangou River in Yilanhabierga Range at Shawan County. Formation conditions and morphological characteristics of rock glaciers
  • Discharge and sediment-load characteristics of the Hilda rock-glacier stream, Canadian Rocky Mountains, Alberta
  • Alberta ; Canada ; Capacité de charge ; Charge en suspension ; Glacier ; Glacier rocheux ; Géographie physique ; Hydrodynamique ; Hydrologie ; Rocky Mountains ; Sédimentologie
  • Water discharge and sediment load characteristics of the Hilda rock-glacier stream are described for portions of the 1985 and 1986 ablation seasons. The hydrological behavior of the Hilda rock-glacier stream suggests that the rock glacier acts
  • as a buffering factor in basin runoff as compared with a similar glacierized basin. In addition, the rock glacier acts conservatively in sediment release from the basin and promotes denudation by dissolution and material transport as dissolved load.
  • Internal structure and behaviour of a rock glacier in the arid Andes of Argentina
  • Active layer ; Andes ; Argentina ; Arid area ; Geophysics ; Glacier ; Meltwater ; Rock glacier ; Seismic method ; Water resources
  • Andes ; Argentine ; Domaine aride ; Eau de fonte ; Glacier ; Glacier rocheux ; Géophysique ; Mollisol ; Ressource en eau ; Sismique
  • This paper reports results of the application of combined refraction and geoelectric geophysical methods to the study of the El Paso rock glacier in the arid Andes of Argentina. The geophysical results permit a first estimate of the volume of water
  • enclosed in the rock glaciers of this region, indicating that locally, rock glaciers are important water resources. However the incidence of water availability to the arid lowlands is unknown.
  • Isotopic composition of ice cores and meltwater from Upper Fremont Glacier and Galena Creek rock glacier, Wyoming
  • Special issue : the geomorphic and climatic significance of rock glaciers
  • Geochemistry ; Glacial ablation ; Glacier ; Isotope analysis ; Meltwater ; Rock glacier ; Spatial variation ; United States of America ; Wyoming
  • Ablation glaciaire ; Analyse isotopique ; Eau de fonte ; Etats-Unis ; Glacier ; Glacier rocheux ; Géochimie ; Variation spatiale ; Wyoming
  • A 9.4 m ice core and meltwater were collected in 1995 and 1996 at the glacigenic Galena Creek rock glacier in Wyoming's Absaroka Mountains. The results of the analyses are compared to those from the ice core and meltwater at the Upper Fremont
  • Glacier to better determine the origin and relative age of the Galena Creek meltwater and ice core. The meltwater from the Galena Creek rock glacier is composed primarily of melted surface snow and rain water rather than melted glacier ice, supporting
  • previous estimates of slow ablation rates beneath the surface debris of the rock glacier.