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Résultats de la recherche (3119 résultats)

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  • A deterministic simulation model for rainfall-runoff relationship on arid hillslopes
  • Bassin-versant ; Domaine aride ; Ecoulement ; Géographie physique ; Modèle déterministe ; Relation pluie-débit ; Simulation
  • Soil hydrophobicity effects on rainsplash: simulated rainfall and photographic evidence
  • Precipitation ; Rainfall simulation ; Slope ; Soil erosion ; Soil properties ; Splash
  • Erosion des sols ; Propriétés du sol ; Précipitation ; Simulation de pluie ; Splash ; Versant
  • Presents the results of laboratory experiments on hydrophobic and wettable soils to investigate the differences in 1) the amounts of soil material detached by simulated rainfall, and 2) the splash detachment mechanisms by comparing splash ejection
  • Spatial and temporal variation in two rainfall simulators : implications for spatially explicit rainfall simulation experiments
  • Rainfall simulation in geomorphology
  • Comparative study ; England ; Experimentation ; Model ; Monte Carlo analysis ; Rainfall simulation ; Research technique ; Soil erosion ; Spatial variation ; Stochastic model ; United Kingdom ; Water erosion
  • England ; Erosion des sols ; Erosion hydrique ; Etude comparée ; Expérimentation ; Modèle ; Modèle stochastique ; Méthode de Monte Carlo ; Royaume-Uni ; Simulation de pluie ; Technique de recherche ; Variation spatiale
  • Rainfall simulators are widely used yet there is little evidence in the literature to show that their spatial and temporal variability has been adequately taken into account. A first aim of this paper is therefore to examine this variability
  • , and to appraise methodologies by which it may be quantified. A second aim is to evaluate the implications for spatially explicit rainfall simulation experiments.
  • Characterization of rainfall generated by dripper-type rainfall simulator using piezoelectric transducers and its impact on splash soil erosion
  • Honshu ; Japan ; Methodology ; Rainfall simulation ; Soil erosion ; Splash ; Water erosion
  • Erosion des sols ; Erosion hydrique ; Honshū ; Japon ; Méthodologie ; Simulation de pluie ; Splash
  • In this paper, the effect of rainfall characteristics produced by a dripper-type rainfall simulator on splash soil erosion (Ds) has been investigated. The simulated rainfall kinetic energy (KE) and drop size distribution (DSD) were measured using
  • piezoelectric transducers. The soil splash was evaluated under various simulated rainfall intensities using the splash-cup method. The simulated rainfall intensity (I) and kinetic energy relationship (I–KE) was found to be different from natural rainfall
  • . The simulated rainfall intensity and splash soil erosion relationship (I–Ds) also followed this same trend. Results and discussion. Accordingly, to improve the soil splash estimation of simulated rainfall under various rainfall intensities the I–KE
  • characterization relationship for rainfall simulators has to be taken into account.
  • The impact of rainfall on sediment transport by sheetflow
  • Experimentation ; Flow ; Precipitation ; Rainfall simulation ; Sediment transport ; Slope ; Slope gradient ; Soil erosion
  • Ecoulement ; Erosion des sols ; Expérimentation ; Pente de versant ; Précipitation ; Simulation de pluie ; Transport sédimentaire ; Versant
  • Discussion of the results of experiments using simulated rainfall. It is shown that, because film thickness increases, the direct impact of rainfall on sediment transport decreases with slope length.
  • Hydraulics of sediment-laden sheetflow and the influence of simulated rainfall
  • Canada ; Ecoulement ; Ecoulement laminaire ; Erosion des sols ; Géographie physique ; Hydraulique ; Hydrodynamique ; Modèle ; Ontario ; Précipitation ; Ruissellement ; Simulateur de pluie ; Transport sédimentaire ; Versant
  • This paper evaluates and compares hydraulic characteristics in flows with and without rainfall disturbance. The spatial uniformity of simulated rainfall properties, and its significance to flow hydraulics, are also discussed.
  • Hydraulic conditions for rill incision under simulated rainfall : a laboratory experiment
  • Downcutting;Incision ; Experimentation ; Gully erosion ; Hydrodynamics ; Rainfall ; Rill wash;Runoff ; Roughness ; Sediment load ; Sedimentary ; Simulated rainfall ; Soil erosion
  • Rainfall simulation in geomorphology
  • Uncertainty in modelling the detachment of soil by rainfall
  • England ; Model ; Modelling ; Precipitation ; Rainfall simulation ; Reliability ; Research technique ; Soil erosion ; Splash ; United Kingdom
  • Energie cinétique ; England ; Erosion des sols ; Fiabilité ; Modèle ; Modélisation ; Précipitation ; Royaume-Uni ; Simulation de pluie ; Splash ; Technique de recherche
  • The AA. show that rainfall kinetic energy (and hence soil detachment) does not bear a simple relationship to intensity. For low-intensity rainfall, observed variations in drop-size distributions indicate that soil detachment, at a given rainfall
  • intensity, may vary by about a factor of two. Comparable estimates of variation in soil detachment at high rainfall intensity are not possible because of a dearth of observational data on variation in drop-size distributions in high-intensity rainfall
  • . Variation in drop-size distributions in natural rainfall may, therefore, account for a significant component of differences between observed soil detachment and that predicted by models of soil erosion.
  • The effects of ryegrass roots and shoots on loess erosion under simulated rainfall
  • Agropedology ; China ; Infiltration ; Loess ; Plant cover ; Rainfall simulation ; Shaanxi ; Soil erosion ; Soil properties ; Vegetation ; Water erosion
  • Agropédologie ; Chine ; Couverture végétale ; Erosion des sols ; Erosion hydrique ; Infiltration ; Loess ; Propriétés du sol ; Shaanxi ; Simulation de pluie ; Végétation
  • Four rainfall simulation experiments were conducted at an interval of 5 weeks to investigate the effects of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. shoots and roots on soil erosion and runoff reductions. Results and discussion. Ryegrass planting could improve
  • A portable rainfall simulator for field assessment of splash and slopewash in remote locations
  • Erosion ; Malaysia ; Precipitation ; Rainfall ; Rainfall simulation ; Splash ; Tropical rain forest
  • Borneo ; Erosion ; Forêt tropicale ; Malaisie ; Pluie ; Précipitation ; Simulation de pluie ; Splash
  • Conception, mise en oeuvre et performances d'un simulateur de pluie de type compte-goutte et d'un système de mesure de l'érosion portable de terrain. Ce système est testé dans une forêt primaire et une forêt tropicale à Danum Valley (Bornéo
  • Size distribution of eroded material from simulated rainfall: effect over a range of texture
  • Erosion des sols ; Erosion pluviale ; Expérimentation ; Granulométrie ; Géographie physique ; Simulation ; Sol ; Technique de recherche
  • A winter rainfall simulation study of sediment and phosphorus loss in arable land in Denmark
  • Arable land ; Denmark ; Rainfall simulation ; Runoff ; Soil erosion ; Watershed ; Winter ; Zeeland
  • Bassin-versant ; Danemark ; Ecoulement ; Erosion des sols ; Hiver ; Phosphore ; Simulation de pluie ; Terre arable ; Zeeland
  • Etude de simulation de pluie de 10 mm par heure réalisée dans des conditions hivernales sur le bassin-versant de Haraldsted en Zélande. Les pertes sédimentaires et en phosphore sont comparées aux pertes déterminées sur d'autres zones d'érosion
  • danoises. On évalue l'applicabilité du simulateur de pluie pour des études ultérieures d'érosion au Danemark.
  • Rainfall simulation experiments with small scale simulators
  • Erodibility ; Experiment plot ; Infiltration ; Modelling ; Precipitation ; Rainfall simulation ; Research technique ; Sediment transport ; Snow ; Soil erosion ; Soil properties ; Vegetation ; Water erosion
  • Erodabilité ; Erosion des sols ; Erosion hydrique ; Infiltration ; Modélisation ; Neige ; Parcelle expérimentale ; Propriétés du sol ; Précipitation ; Simulation de pluie ; Technique de recherche ; Transport sédimentaire ; Végétation
  • Several state of the art contributions presented at the International Rainfall Simulator Workshop 2011 at Trier University and the main outcomes of the workshop are presented in this issue. The 1st paper reports constraints, needs and challenges
  • for a future use of small scale simulators in soil erosion research. The 2nd paper presents an experiment with 7 different rainfall simulators from Germany, Spain, Switzerland and the Netherlands on a prepared field in Trier to determine the influence
  • of rainfall simulator type and plot dimensions on runoff and erosion. Additionally, 10 selected papers present an overview of research currently carried out with small scale simulators, including new topics like in situ simulations of wind-driven rain and rain
  • on snow events. The challenges of using small scale rainfall simulations concern the comparability of results and scales, the quality of data for soil erosion modelling, and further technical developments.
  • Field and computer simulation experiments on the formation of desert pavement
  • Arid area ; Arizona ; Experimentation ; Model ; Rainfall simulation ; Soil erosion ; Splash ; United States of America
  • Arizona ; Domaine aride ; Erosion des sols ; Etats-Unis ; Expérimentation ; Modèle ; Pavage désertique ; Simulation de pluie ; Splash
  • A series of rainfall simulation experiments was carried out at the Walnu Gulch Experimental Watershed, Tombstone, Arizona, to observe the speed at which desert pavement surfaces could be re-established following disturbance. The results
  • of these field simulations were then compared with numerical simulations to check the extent to which the simulation model of Wainwright et al. (1994) reproduces the effects of raindrop erosion.
  • A rainfall simulator for laboratory-scale assessment of rainfall-runoff-sediment transport processes over a two-dimensional flume
  • Experimentation ; Rainfall simulation ; Rill wash ; Runoff ; Sediment transport ; Slope gradient ; Soil erosion ; Water erosion
  • Ecoulement ; Erosion des sols ; Erosion hydrique ; Expérimentation ; Pente de versant ; Ruissellement ; Simulation de pluie ; Transport sédimentaire
  • In this study, a laboratory-scale rainfall simulator is developed. Rainfall characteristics including the rainfall intensity and its spatial uniformity, raindrop size, raindrop velocity, and kinetic energy confirm that natural rainfall conditions
  • of interrill areas into rills. Experiments result in typical rainfall-induced hydrographs and sedigraphs observed under natural conditions. This shows the ability of the rainfall simulator for use in sediment transport processes over hillslopes.
  • are simulated with sufficient accuracy. The accompanying erosion flume can be given slope up to 20% in lateral and longitudinal directions. During the experiments, flow measurement is taken from 2 outlets at the end of the flume to distinguish the contribution
  • A mathematical model to simulate rainfall erosion
  • Agropedology ; Mathematical model ; Model ; Precipitation ; Rainfall simulation ; Slope gradient ; Soil conservation ; Soil erosion ; Soil properties
  • Agropédologie ; Conservation des sols ; Erosion des sols ; Modèle ; Modèle mathématique ; Pente de versant ; Propriété du sol ; Précipitation ; Simulation de pluie
  • The soil erosion model presented in this paper is based predominantly on general physical principles. The model parameters are related directly to measurable soil, slope and rainfall properties. Both the erosion and the deposition of the soil
  • Rainfall interception and splash detachment with a Brussels sprouts plant: a laboratory simulation
  • Cycle de l'eau ; Erosion des sols ; Erosion pluviale ; Géographie physique ; Interception ; Simulateur de pluie ; Technique de recherche
  • Rates of splash detachment from a sandy soil of the Cottenham series, subjected to a five minute design storm of 50 mm/h with a kinetic energy of 127 J/m and a median volum drop size of 3,2 mm supplied from a rotating-disc rainfall simulator
  • , are determined without a plant cover and with the cover of a single Brussels sprouts plant. The detachment rate was found rather surprisingly to be inversely related to the energy of the rainfall under the plant and positively related to the number of leaves.
  • Simulation of a serie of daily areal mean rainfalls for a basin using rainfall observations at a reference station located outside the basin
  • A mathematical model is built which enables daily estimates to be made of the areal mean rainfalls for a basin using rainfall observations at a reference station of the same climature (succession of meteorological phenomena related to the types
  • Evaluation of three different Model Concepts to Simulate the Rainfall-Runoff process in a tropical headwater catchment in West Africa
  • Africa ; Benin ; Model ; Precipitation ; Rainfall simulation ; West Africa
  • Afrique ; Afrique de l'Ouest ; Bénin ; Modèle ; Précipitation ; Simulation de pluie
  • L'étude évalue l'application de trois concepts différents de modèles de simulation des pluies et des écoulements en Afrique de l'Ouest. Les trois modèles (un modèle basé sur TOPMODEL, un modèle conceptuel et un modèle physique) sont testés dans deux
  • Herbicide transport via surface runoff during intermittent artificial rainfall : A laboratory plot scale study
  • Agropedology ; Experimentation ; Germany ; Herbicide ; Overland flow ; Rainfall simulation ; Runoff ; Schleswig-Holstein
  • Agropédologie ; Allemagne ; Ecoulement ; Ecoulement superficiel ; Expérimentation ; Flensburg ; Herbicide ; Schleswig-Holstein ; Simulation de pluie
  • Herbicide losses and the influence of physicochemical properties of flufenacet, metazachlor and terbuthylazine were studied on a microplot of bare soil and slight slope with rainfall simulation. The highest concentrations were detected in the first
  • runoff samples which decreased exponentially with further rainfall. The artificial setup of intermittent rainfall revealed that with every new rainfall event after a rainless period, a higher amount of herbicides was released from the plot than
  • at the last interval of the previous rainfall event. This effect was caused by alterations to the soil surface that occurred during the rainless periods. Furthermore, the results show that the herbicide loss relates to herbicide adsorption to organic carbon