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  • Cifrovaâ model' rel'efa dna Belogo morâ
  • Modèle numérique de terrain du fond de la mer Blanche
  • Base de données ; Carte bathymétrique ; Fond sous-marin ; Géomorphologie ; Mer Blanche ; Modèle ; Modèle numérique de terrain ; Relief ; Russie d'Europe
  • Bathymetric chart ; Data base ; Digital elevation model ; European part of Russia ; Geomorphology ; Model ; Relief ; Sea floor ; White Sea
  • Le modèle numérique de terrain (MNT) du fond de la mer Blanche est conçu grâce aux technologies du SIG et aux nouvelles techniques de l’analyse morphogénique du relief. Ce MNT permet de réaliser des cartes numériques à différentes échelles sans
  • perdre les données de l’information initiale ; les images 3D et les images animées ; l’analyse mathématique comparée etc. Lors de la conception du modèle les AA. ont tenu compte de l’origine du relief, de ses traits structuraux et de ses particularités
  • 2012
  • Analyse des groupes ; Cycle de vie ; Développement ; Modèle ; Slovénie ; Station touristique ; Tourisme
  • Cluster analysis ; Development ; Life cycle ; Model ; Slovenia ; Tourism ; Tourist resort
  • The paper discusses the applicability of Butler's model of the life cycle of a tourist area in interpreting various development patterns of Slovene tourist resorts. In order to find out similar development patterns a hierarchical cluster analysis
  • is performed. As a result, nine clusters are identified. The results show very heterogeneous development of individual resorts. Only in regard to a smaller part of them a pattern similar to the one from Butler's model could be discerned. - (IKR)
  • 2012
  • MRICES : A new model for emission mitigation strategy assessment and its application
  • Changement climatique ; Mitigation ; Modèle ; Modèle économique ; Pays développés ; Pays en développement ; Stratégie d'acteurs
  • Climatic change ; Decision making process ; Developed countries ; Developing countries ; Economic model ; Mitigation ; Model
  • In this paper, the AA. developed the MRICES (Multi-regional integrated model of climate and economy with GDP spillovers) model, which is an integrated assessment model (IAM) but extends to include GDP spillover mechanism, to make assessment
  • 2012
  • Three methods for modelling potential natural vegetation (PNV) compared : A methodological case study from south-central Norway
  • Biogeography ; Comparative study ; Cultivated land ; Cultural landscape ; Forest ; Human impact ; Humid environment ; Methodology ; Modelling ; Mountain ; Norway ; Southern Norway ; Vegetation dynamics ; Vegetation map
  • nature's biotic potential in the absence of human influence and disturbance, using 3 different modelling methods : (1) an expert-based manual modelling (EMM), (2) rule-based envelope GIS-modelling (RBM), and (3) a statistical predictive GIS-modelling method
  • (Maxent). The article compares the modelling results and shows that the 3 modelling methods have different advantages, challenges and preconditions.
  • 2012
  • A 2D model for characterising first-order variability in sublimation of buried glacier ice, Antarctica : assessing the influence of polygon troughs, desert pavements and shallow subsurface salts
  • Antarctique ; Fente de gel ; Glace ; Glacier ; Microclimat ; Modèle ; Modèle numérique ; Pergélisol ; Périglaciaire ; Région polaire ; Sol figuré ; Sublimation ; Température ; Zone froide
  • Antarctica ; Cold area ; Glacier ; Ice ; Ice wedges ; Microclimate ; Model ; Numerical model ; Patterned ground ; Periglacial features ; Permafrost ; Polar region ; Sublimation ; Temperature
  • To assess the role of thermal contraction-crack polygons (sublimation polygons) in modulating sublimation of buried glacier ice in Antarctica, the AA. applied a 2D numerical model using COMSOL Multiphysics that calculates the rate and spatial
  • . The model results show that sublimation varies with drift texture and surface topography. The importance of including field-based data for drift texture, topography and microclimate variation in modelling ice sublimation is highlighted. The results also
  • 2012
  • Landslide susceptibility mapping using index of entropy and conditional probability models in GIS : Safarood Basin, Iran
  • Cartographie thématique ; Glissement de terrain ; Iran ; Modèle ; Māzandarān ; Risque naturel ; Statistique ; Système d'information géographique ; Vulnérabilité
  • Geographical information system ; Iran ; Landslide ; Mazandaran ; Model ; Natural hazards ; Statistics ; Thematic mapping ; Vulnerability
  • The aim of this study is to produce landslide susceptibility maps at Safarood basin, Iran, using 2 statistical models such as an index of entropy and conditional probability and to compare the obtained results. At the first stage, landslide
  • of entropy (IOE) and conditional probability (CP) models. Both the models have good predictive capacity but the IOE method performed slightly better than the CP model in landslide susceptibility mapping.
  • 2012
  • [b2] Fac. of Engineering, Dep. of Civil Engineering, Spatial and Numerical Modeling Research Group, Univ., Putra, Malaisie
  • Modelling the bulk flow of a bedrock-constrained, multi-channel reach of the Mekong River, Siphandone, southern Laos
  • Chenal anastomosé ; Cours d'eau ; Couverture végétale ; Débit de pointe ; Géométrie hydraulique ; Laos ; Modèle ; Mékong ; Rugosité ; Végétation ripicole
  • Braided channel ; Channel geometry ; Laos ; Mekong ; Model ; Peak discharge ; Plant cover ; Riparian vegetation ; Roughness ; Stream
  • The multiple channel network of the Siphandone wetlands in Laos, a section of the Mekong River, was modelled using a steady one-dimensional hydraulic model. The river network is characterized by a spatially-varying channel-form leading
  • to significant changes in the bulk flow properties between and along the channels. The challenge to model the bulk flow in such a remote region was the lack of ideal boundary conditions. The flow models considered both low flow, high inbank and overbank flows
  • and were calibrated using SPOT satellite sensor imagery and limited field data concerning water levels. The application of the model highlighted flow characteristics of a large multi-channel network and also further indicated the field data that would
  • 2012
  • Choix d'un modèle géopotentiel global pour la détermination précise du géoïde en Algérie
  • Algérie ; GPS ; Gravimétrie ; Géodésie ; Modèle numérique de terrain ; Traitement des données
  • Algeria ; Data processing ; Digital elevation model ; Geodesy ; Global Positioning System ; Gravimetry
  • Dans ce travail, les AA. apportent une contribution à l'étude du géoïde en Algérie en utilisant une méthode de filtrage des coefficients des modèles géopotentiels. La comparaison du filtrage passe bas des modèles géopotentiels avec les données
  • gravimétriques du fichier EOL et les données GPS nivelé a montré que le modèle OSU91A est le plus adapté à l'Algérie. Les données utilisées sont une combinaison des données gravimétriques, des coefficients du modèle géopotentiel OSU91A et le MNT global GTOPO30
  • . Afin d'améliorer les résultats obtenus, il est prévu un nouveau calcul du géoïde en utilisant des données de gravité terrestres fiables et bien réparties sur toute l'Algérie, un MNT précis, et l'utilisation du modèle EGMO8.
  • 2012
  • Dynamique littorale ; Littoral ; Modèle ; Modèle numérique ; Niveau marin ; Simulation ; Transport sédimentaire
  • Coastal dynamics ; Coastal environment ; Model ; Numerical model ; Sea level ; Sediment transport ; Simulation
  • This contribution takes a numerical modelling approach that is based on first-order processes contributing to the movement of sediment across the shoreface. Using a wave transformation model that predicts hydrodynamic processes driving cross-shore
  • sediment transport and an energetics-based model for the coupling between hydrodynamics and sediment transport, the AA. show that cross-shore sediment transport is mainly onshore directed at the boundary between the lower and the upper shoreface
  • , in agreement with the model proposed by Davidson-Arnott (Conceptual model of the effects of sea level rise on sandy coasts, Journal of Coastal Research 21 : 1166-1172, 2005). The transition from onshore to offshore directed transport is located well within
  • 2012
  • Kompleksnaâ matematičeskaâ model' dlâ issledovaniâ volnovyh processov v protočnyh sistemah otkrytyh rusel i vodoёmov
  • Modèle mathématique pour l’étude des processus ondulatoires dans les émissaires des chenaux ouverts et des plans d’eau
  • Cours d'eau ; Géométrie hydraulique ; Hydrodynamique ; Hydrologie ; Lama ; Modèle ; Modèle mathématique ; Niveau lacustre ; Plan d'eau ; Russie d'Asie ; Vague
  • Asian part of Russia ; Channel geometry ; Hydrodynamics ; Hydrology ; Lake level ; Mathematical model ; Model ; Stream ; Water body ; Wave
  • Elaboration d’un modèle mathématique uni- et bidimensionnel et d’une méthode numérique des processus ondulatoires dans les émissaires des chenaux ouverts et des plans d'eau. L’analyse et la comparaison des résultats de la modélisation numérique des
  • régimes hydrodynamiques en conditions réelles avec ceux du modèle uni- ou bidimensionnel montrent l’efficacité et la rentabilité de ce dernier pour l’étude des processus ondulatoires dans les plans et les cours d’eau à structure complexe.
  • 2012
  • The challenge of modeling pool–riffle morphologies in channels with different densities of large woody debris and boulders
  • Bloc ; Bois flottant ; Chenal seuil-fosse ; Cours d'eau ; Dynamique fluviale ; Etats-Unis ; Géométrie hydraulique ; Habitat ; Modèle ; New England ; Profil longitudinal
  • Boulder ; Channel geometry ; Fluvial dynamics ; Habitat ; Longitudinal section ; Model ; New England ; Step-pool channel ; Stream ; United States of America ; Woody debris
  • A Monte Carlo simulation approach and developmental computer model was created to predict pool formation, spacing and the percentage length covered by pools, riffles, scour holes and runs based on input data that include channel slope, width
  • , the number of small and large boulders, and the number of 10-30 cm, 30-60 cm and >60 cm pieces of wood. The statistical-empirical model is founded on the idea that boulders, bedrock outcrops and large woody debris provide a physical framework
  • that then controls local water-surface slopes, velocity patterns and the locations of pools and riffles. The spacing values of individual types and sizes of obstructions are modeled as log-normal distributions with separate distributions for each obstruction type
  • . Pools are assigned different probabilities of development depending on the obstruction type. The model accurately mimics some statistical attributes of pool spacing, and future versions of the model could be developed to improve overall predictive
  • 2012
  • A review of remote sensing based productivity models and their suitability for studying oil palm productivity in tropical regions
  • Agriculture ; Cycle du carbone ; Dioxyde de carbone ; Donnée climatique ; Modèle ; Palmier à huile ; Photosynthèse ; Productivité ; Télédétection ; Zone intertropicale
  • Agriculture ; Carbon cycle ; Carbon dioxide ; Climatic data ; Model ; Oil palm ; Photosynthesis ; Productivity ; Remote sensing ; Tropical zone
  • The objective of this paper is to review existing remote sensing based models (i.e. CASA, GLO-PEM, VPM, C-Fix, TURC, EC-LUE, VI, TG, 3-PGS and MOD17) that use light use efficiency (LUE) logic, and subsequently to evaluate the suitability
  • of these models for estimating oil palm productivity. This paper also highlights the limitation of current remote sensing based models for estimating oil palm productivity. From the review of existing literature, it is clear that the existing remote sensing based
  • models need to be modified in terms of meteorological inputs, maximum LUE and environmental constraints in order to improve the estimation of oil palm productivity.
  • 2012
  • Bifurcation modelling in a meandering gravel–sand bed river
  • Bifurcation ; Cours d'eau ; Géométrie hydraulique ; Modèle ; Modèle numérique ; Méandre ; Pays-Bas ; Rhin ; Transport sédimentaire
  • Bifurcation ; Channel geometry ; Meander ; Model ; Netherlands (The) ; Numerical model ; Rhine ; Sediment transport ; Stream
  • modelling of this bifurcation with a gravel-sand bed and a meandering planform. Successive computations have shown the importance of upstream approach conditions, the necessity to include physical mechanisms for grain sorting and alluvial roughness
  • and 3D morphological models are valuable tools, not only for pragmatic applications to engineering problems, but also for revealing the limitations of established knowledge and understanding of the relevant physical processes.
  • 2012
  • Avulsion ; Bifurcation ; British Columbia ; Canada ; Chenal anastomosé ; Columbia ; Confluence ; Cours d'eau ; Géométrie hydraulique ; Modelé fluviatile ; Modèle ; Transport sédimentaire
  • Avulsion ; Bifurcation ; Braided channel ; British Columbia ; Canada ; Channel geometry ; Columbia ; Confluent ; Fluvial landform ; Model ; Sediment transport ; Stream
  • The AA. test hypotheses on morphodynamic scenario modelling and data of the upper Columbia River. Initial and boundary conditions for the modelling were derived from field data. A 1D network model was built based on gradually varied flow equations
  • from upstream, which can have caused channel aggradation above the surrounding floodplain and subsequent avulsion. The modelling also indicates that avulsion was likely caused by upstream overloading. In the model, multi-channel systems inevitably
  • 2012
  • Field-scale investigation of the effect of land use on sediment yield and runoff using runoff plot data and models in the Mara River basin, Kenya
  • Bassin-versant ; Bilan sédimentaire ; Ecoulement ; Erosion des sols ; Erosion hydrique ; Kenya ; Mara ; Modèle ; Parcelle expérimentale ; Utilisation agricole du sol ; Utilisation du sol
  • Agricultural land use ; Experiment plot ; Kenya ; Land use ; Model ; Runoff ; Sediment budget ; Soil erosion ; Water erosion ; Watershed
  • In order to evaluate the effects of 3 land-use/land cover practices on runoff and sediment yield using runoff plots and 2 models : Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) and Erosion 3D, runoff plots were established at 3 sites in the Mara River
  • that erosion was high in all of the sites on cultivated lands. The model evaluation indicated that both of the models perform well in estimation of runoff, however, the WEPP model performs better than Erosion 3D in estimation of soil erosion.
  • 2012
  • Basel ; Classification des sols ; Modèle ; Modèle numérique de terrain ; Pente de versant ; Propriétés du sol ; Prévision ; Sol ; Sol forestier ; Stratégie d'acteurs ; Suisse
  • Basel ; Decision making process ; Digital elevation model ; Forecast ; Forest soil ; Model ; Slope gradient ; Soil ; Soil classification ; Soil properties ; Switzerland
  • This study describes a terrain analysis method that combines modeled and defined geomorphographic terrain attributes with detailed field knowledge and local mapping experience. 450 forest soil profiles were used to statistically analyze
  • , modeled steep slopes, ridges, slope edges, convex and concave slope formations correlate well to local landform elements. Up to now, the results for mid slope modeling have been unsatisfactory. The complex morphographic terrain classification approach
  • , described in this study, is a feasible spatial and hierarchical basis for decision-based prediction models.
  • 2012
  • Enhancing habitat connectivity in fragmented landscapes : spatial modeling of wildlife crossing structures in transportation networks
  • Analyse spatiale ; Etats-Unis ; Habitat ; Massachusetts ; Modèle ; Passage protégé ; Paysage fragmenté ; Protection de la nature ; Route ; Réseau routier ; Système d'information géographique ; Vie sauvage
  • Fragmented landscape ; Geographical information system ; Habitat ; Massachusetts ; Model ; Nature conservation ; Road ; Road network ; Spatial analysis ; United States of America ; Wildlife
  • This research develops 2 classes of spatial models for optimally locating crossing structures in situations where the goal is to connect discrete habitat patches that are fragmented by roads. The first group of models uses variations of minimum
  • . The second set of models includes newly developed integer programs with objectives that maximize interpatch connectivity given a fixed number of crossing structures. The AA. illustrated the models using hypothetical landscapes and applied them to a case study
  • 2012
  • Watershed scale application of WEPP and EROSION 3D models for assessment of potential sediment source areas and runoff flux in the Mara River Basin, Kenya
  • Bassin-versant ; Bilan sédimentaire ; Ecoulement superficiel ; Erosion des sols ; Erosion hydrique ; Impact ; Kenya ; Mara River ; Modèle ; Utilisation du sol
  • Impact ; Kenya ; Land use ; Model ; Overland flow ; Sediment budget ; Soil erosion ; Water erosion ; Watershed
  • hydrologic alterations. This has led to the need for more observation and modeling to understand the impacts of the various land use changes on the sediment and runoff characteristics of the watershed. Two physically based models (Erosion 3D and Water Erosion
  • Prediction Project (WEPP)) were applied to predict the watershed scale sediment and runoff response. It is shown that sediment and runoff vary by land use, topography and soil type; the 2 models are comparable but WEPP model is better for sediment estimation
  • 2012
  • Modeling the contribution of ephemeral gully erosion under different soil managements : A case study in an olive orchard microcatchment using the AnnAGNPS model
  • Andalucía ; Bassin-versant ; Córdoba ; Domaine semi-aride ; Erosion des sols ; Erosion hydrique ; Espagne ; Modèle ; Pratique culturale ; Ravinement ; Utilisation agricole du sol
  • Agricultural land use ; Agricultural practice ; Andalusia ; Córdoba ; Gully erosion ; Model ; Semi-arid area ; Soil erosion ; Spain ; Water erosion ; Watershed
  • on the experimental results obtained in an olive crop microcatchment in the province of Cordoba, Spain. The AA. calibrated a AnnAGNPS model at event and monthly scales providing suitable adjustments of runoff, peak flow and sediment loads. Ephemeral gullies were also
  • identified using aerial orthophotography and field work. The module of the AnnAGNPS model for simulating ephemeral gully generation and the tillage operations based on a bibliographical review were used to compare different scenarios and to perform a 10 year
  • 2012
  • A spatial-temporal modeling approach to reconstructing land-cover change trajectories from multi-temporal satellite imagery
  • Changement environnemental ; Classification ; Espace-temps ; Etats-Unis ; Image satellite ; LANDSAT ; Modèle ; Occupation du sol ; Ohio ; Processus markovien ; Relation homme-environnement ; Série chronologique ; Traitement des données
  • Classification ; Data processing ; Environmental change ; LANDSAT ; Land utilisation ; Man-environment relations ; Markov model ; Model ; Ohio ; Remote sensing ; Satellite imagery ; Space time ; Time series ; United States of America
  • A spatial-temporal modeling approach is developed here for reconstructing land-cover change trajectories from time series of satellite images. The change detection method represents an enhancement to the conventional post-classification comparison
  • . The key innovation lies in the use of Markov random field theory to model spatial-temporal contextual information explicitly in the classification of time series images. When evaluated using a time series of 7 Landsat images in a case study of southeast
  • Ohio, the spatial-temporal modeling approach yielded significantly more accurate and consistent trajectories of land-cover change than conventional non-contextual approaches. These results also highlight the utility of spatial-temporal contextual
  • 2012