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  • The housing policy and housing
  • The housing standard and satisfying communal needs| housing needs| the distribution of socially owned housing| the economic position of working people and citizens subject to the manner of solving of their housing problem| the organization
  • of housing construction, the maintenance and management of housing and public utility facilities.
  • Policy issues involving housing commercialization in the People's Republic of China
  • China ; Housing ; Housing cost ; Housing improvement ; Housing policy ; Investment ; Simulation ; Urban growth
  • The A. examines the institutional and political characteristics of the urban housing sector. He then discusses recent efforts toward housing reform and housing commercialization. Finally, he employs a quantitative analysis to evaluate two
  • alternative urban housing policies that have implications for current housing reform.
  • The housing market, housing finance and housing policy in West Germany : prospects for the 1990s in Housing finance and policy.
  • The interaction of private decisions and government interventions is evaluated against the background of a liberal economic policy, which influenced economic conditions and the pattern of housing finance and housing policy.
  • Bulgarian housing reform and forms of housing provision
  • Bulgaria ; Cooperative ; Financing ; Housing ; Housing market ; Housing policy ; Privatisation ; State control
  • This paper explores the extent to which state intervention and market forces affect the housing provision system. Bulgarian housing policy reform is analysed with emphasis on the dynamics of change, the formation of a new market-oriented system
  • and its impact on innovation in the structures of housing provision.
  • The sale of the social housing stock in Slovenia: what happened and why
  • Housing ; Housing market ; Housing policy ; Investment ; Privatisation ; Regional disparities ; Slovenia ; Social housing
  • The sales of this stock has been promulgated by the Housing Act in 1991. The large differences between municipalities in the percentage of sold social housing are due primarily to economic factors. It has accentuated regional disparities
  • and will seriously limit the options for housing tenure reform in the future.
  • Self-provided housing: the first world's hidden housing arm
  • Capitalist states ; Construction industry ; Detached house ; Economic behaviour ; Household consumption ; Housing ; Housing cost ; Housing market ; Housing occupance ; Real estate development ; Urban construction
  • Self-provided housing is often a major element in the expansion of European metropoles and it is not associated with backwardness, peripherality, or lack of market development. It lowers the money cost of housing and ensures higher quality
  • , and it enlarges the choices of middle-income nuclear families. It can have important effects on the housebuilding industry. There are various models for a successful self-provides housing sector.
  • The evolving housing market in Moscow: indicators of housing reform
  • Economic reform ; European part of Russia ; Finance ; Habitability ; Housing ; Housing cost ; Housing market ; Housing policy ; Legislation ; Moscow ; Privatisation ; Residential mobility ; Urban construction
  • The paper examines the results of the housing policy reforms in terms of their effects on private ownership, residential mobility, housing conditions and housing affordability. Longitudinal data on these four characteristics of the Moscow housing
  • Social housing and planning gain : is this an appropriate way of providing affordable housing ?
  • Housing ; Housing cost ; Housing market ; Housing policy ; Land rent ; Social housing ; United Kingdom ; Urban development ; Urban planning
  • On the development of the policy, the AA. look at how the need for affordable housing is assessed, how the policy evolves, and how it is currently operated. On the principles and potential outputs of the policy they look at how the approach fits
  • into the principles of betterment taxation. They examine what the evidence is so far on the impact of planning obligations on affordable housing provision. They develop a typology of likely outcomes, particularly regarding who pays for affordable housing.
  • Inclusion or exclusion ? The role of housing subsidies and benefits
  • Habitability ; Housing ; Housing market ; Housing policy ; Investment ; Rent ; Social housing ; United Kingdom
  • The paper explores the reasons why the UK has ended up with such an extensive system of intervention in the housing market, through providing subsidised council and housing association, and through Housing Benefit. An important justification
  • is to enable those who would not be able to do so to afford to live in housing of acceptable quality, and to do so while avoiding the area polarisation which would result from the operation of the free market. The paper explores what could be done to reinvent
  • the way in which housing is subsidised.
  • Differentiation of residents according to housing supply type : a case study of Fukuoka City
  • City;Town ; Housing ; Japan ; Kyushu
  • This paper aims to examine the differentiation of the residents in the context of mixed housing supplies, and to clarify the characteristics of each resident in housing estates, condominiums, publicly owned houses, privately owned houses
  • and in company's houses for employees in Fukuoka city. - (KA)
  • Housing reforms and commercialization of urban housing in China
  • Urban housing reforms were initiated in China after 1978, but the housing system still need to be restructured. - (SGA)
  • Characteristics and transformation of public housing dwellers in Hiroshima
  • Honshu ; Housing ; Housing occupance ; Japan ; Public sector
  • This paper aims to examine the transformation of dwellers' characteristics in public housing from 1970 to 1990 in Hiroshima City and to clarify the transformation mechanism. To examine the transformation in characteristics of dwellers in public
  • housing, the A. used data for age, family size, and occupation. - (KA)
  • Land-use planning ang the housing market in Britain: the impact on housebuilding and house prices
  • Great Britain ; Housing ; Housing cost ; Housing market ; Housing policy ; Land use ; Model ; Supply ; United Kingdom ; Urban planning
  • The impact of the British style of land-use planning upon the outcomes of private housing development and the housing market is examined. A unique cross-sectional database is constructed, and the medium-term elasticity of new housebuilding supply
  • The process of commercialisation of urban housing in China
  • China ; Economic reform ; Economic system ; Housing ; Housing cost ; Housing market ; Housing policy ; Investment ; Urban planning
  • Various new policies have been introduced from as early as 1979, designed to commercialise and reform the public-sector-dominated housing system. The AA. provide a review of housing reforms and an account of the key features of the commercialisation
  • process. The focus is on the attempts to privatise public-sector housing in urban areas in the context of the characteristics and problems of the urban housing system, the development of reform policies and legislation and current reform practice.
  • Scottish housing in a European perspective
  • Housing ; Housing cost ; Housing market ; Housing policy ; Investment ; Local government ; Rented market ; Scotland ; Social housing ; United Kingdom
  • One of the striking aspects of housing in Scotland is the extent to which it differs from England and the other constituent countries of the UK. The differences between Scottish housing and housing in other European countries, particularly
  • Gaining access to housing in Germany : the foreign-minority experience
  • Foreigner ; Germany ; Habitability ; Housing ; Housing market ; Housing occupance ; Minority ; Residential mobility
  • Specifically, the AA. examine whether the housing conditions for immigrants improved between 1985 and 1998 despite the greater barriers to upward mobility for low-skill workers arising from industrial restructuring. Regression models are used
  • to determine the degree to which socioeconomic differences between the two populations account for the variations in the average quality of their housing. Although housing conditions for minorities have improved in absolute terms, only in a few instances has
  • the housing quality gap between Germans and persons of foreign origin narrowed. The housing conditions of minorities remained poorer.
  • Family-houses in Ghanaian cities : to be or not to be?
  • Cost-benefit analysis ; Family structure ; Ghana ; Housing ; Housing occupance ; Legislation ; Poverty ; Rent control
  • In Kumasi, Ghana's second city, one-quarter of all households occupy free accommodation and the population so housed continues to rise as a result of supply constraints. The paper examines the nature of such « family-housing » and, highlighting
  • the contradictions inherent in this form of housing, it attempts to predict the medium-term future of this form of tenure.
  • The role of community based organizations in housing low-income people
  • Community ; Housing ; KwaZulu-Natal ; Organization ; Poverty ; Service ; South Africa
  • The paper addresses the question of the extent to which community based housing movement can be considered for housing low-income people. The role of the Piesangs River Regional Federation (KwaZulu-Natal) is examined in the context of housing
  • provision. The relationships between various organisations and the government are studied and suggestions made to improve housing delivery. - (AJC)
  • The tax treatment of housing : economic issues and reform measures in Housing finance and policy.
  • The favourable tax treatment of housing assets is common to many OECD countries. While many housing tax expenditures have emerged as tax systems have evolved, they nevertheless accord favourable treatment to housing asset-owners.