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  • Lowering transportation costs are considered one of the main drivers of globalization. In the last decades the volumes of internationally traded goods have been steeply increasing, maritime transport remaining the most important mode mainly for bulk
  • trade. However, available data on the actual costs are scarce and do not prove a generalized and significant drop in the overall carriage expenses. Many developing countries still suffer from high mark-ups on the costs of traded goods, induced
  • by transport costs and significantly lowering their international competitiveness and overall welfare of their societies. Additionally, transport infrastructure, mainly between developing countries and connecting them to sea ports has to be expanded. - (IfL)
  • Neue Entwicklungstendenzen im Weltluftverkehr. Hub Airports, Strategic Alliances, Low-Cost Carriers
  • Les nouvelles tendances d’évolution dans le transport aérien mondial : hubs aéroportuaires, alliances stratégiques, marché des Low-Cost
  • to recent changes in international air transport: rising crude oil and jet fuel prices, the advent of low-cost carriers in existing markets as a consequence of deregulation measures, emerging markets especially in East and Southeast Asia, in creased
  • , costs, and prices. Consequently, they are not much concerned with sustainable transport aiming to improve the economic, ecological and social conditions of human life. - (IfL)
  • are transported in decreasing time and costs across increasing distances. This paper addresses the political and economic framework as well as the structural changes on a global scale. Thereafter it focuses on selected influential factors and challenges in regard