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  • Climate policy ; Climatic change ; Ecological footprint ; Governance ; Greenhouse effect ; Private sector ; Public sector ; Transport policy ; United States of America ; Urban climate ; Urban policy
  • 2014
  • Carbon economy ; Climate ; Climatic change ; Communication ; Cornwall ; Decision ; England ; Firm ; Greenhouse effect ; Knowledge ; United Kingdom
  • 2014
  • Atmospheric pollution ; Carbon dioxide ; Greenhouse effect ; Human impact ; Impact ; Land use ; Pollution ; Russia
  • 2014
  • Barrier effect and cross-border cooperation. The Sweden-Norway INTERREG–A territorial effects
  • Barrier effect ; Frontier ; Norway ; Partnership ; Project ; Sweden ; Trans-border cooperation
  • This article intends to shed some light on the progress of the cross border cooperation in the swedish Norwegian border region, and the territorial effects of the Interreg A programme in the reduction of the barrier effect along the border in five
  • 2014
  • Block, neighbourhood or district ? the importance of geographical scale for area effects on educational attainment
  • This study examines adolescent development, with educational attainment as the dependent variable. It further addresses contextual effects that emerge at different intra-urban geographical scales by exploring spatial effects at block, neighbourhood
  • and district level in Oslo, Norway. The results reveal significant effects on the youth's future educational attainment at all geographical levels and for all tested measures of social and demographic area composition. They also show that the highest
  • geographical level (district) has the strongest effect. This surprising result is tentatively interpreted to emerge from a combination of three interwoven mechanisms: the youths' extended activity spaces and social interactions, the institutional aspects
  • 2014
  • effects, a multilevel analysis is applied using a mixed-effects model to explore whether contextual factors account for differences in the probability of transition to full-time employment between individuals with different characteristics. The results
  • indicate that there is a contextual effect and that there are some spatial spill-over effects from neighbouring municipalities, and that the unemployment rate partly explains the context variability. Furthermore, the contextual effect is found
  • 2014
  • This article analyses the effects of knowledge spillovers via entrepreneurship on economic performance of 337 German districts. Positive knowledge spillover effects via entrepreneurship and competitiveness – improving the effects of entrepreneurship
  • capital within a certain region as well as between regions – are found. However, the significance of the spatial spillover effects largely depends on the choice of the weight matrix. This is seen as evidence that positive and negative spatial spillover
  • effects of entrepreneurship capital cancel out.
  • 2014
  • Effects of forest harvest on soil nutrients and labile ions in Podzols of southwestern Canada : Mean and dispersion effects
  • This study investigates the effects of conventional clear-cutting on soil chemistry in Podzols of Roberts Creek Study Forest. The AA. measured forest floor composition, soil pH and salt-extractable ions concentrations in undisturbed forested stands
  • (control plots), stands harvested 2 to 5 years prior to sampling (cleared plots) and stands harvested 8 to 15 years prior to sampling (regenerating plots). They focused on the effects of forest harvest both on mean (differences in average values
  • acidification. The most notable harvest effect was a large increase in the variability of inorganic N concentration. This suggests an increase in micro-heterogeneity of post-harvest nutrient availability which has implications for the nutrition of regenerating
  • 2014
  • A decline of ‘friends and neighbours voting’ in Ireland? Local candidate effects in the 2011 Irish ‘earthquake election'
  • This paper examines local candidate effects in the most recent Irish general election, held in 2011. It showsthat during this unusually volatile election, fought in the shadow of an EU/IMF ‘bailout’, ‘friends and neighbours voting’ persisted
  • of these two and other Irish parties in terms of fluctuating local candidate effects.
  • 2014
  • This study examines the combined effect of formal (FSK) and informal (ISK) sources of knowledge on European regional innovation performance. The findings first show that both sources of knowledge have an interaction effect on innovation performance
  • (ie, the effect of FSK on regional innovation depends on the level of access to ISK in the region, and vice versa). They also demonstrate that the balanced access to both types of sources is important and that, for instance, regions with limited access
  • to ISK should not expect miraculous effects from high levels of FSK.
  • 2014
  • Behaviour ; Contextual effect ; Czech Republic ; Election ; Electoral behaviour ; Impact ; Neighbourhood effect ; Political life
  • The paper discusses the contextual effects on voting behaviour. The study examines the existence of contextual effects using spatially very detailed data. When the determinants of election results are studied at the municipal level by spatial
  • statistical methods, areas of different size can be found in Czechia, in which election results can’t be explained by the composition of voters. Instead it becomes more appropriate to consider the contextual effects impacting on them. Some results
  • of the analysis can be interpreted as a manifestation of neighbourhood effects, unambiguous confirmation of its existence, however, remains open. - (EN)
  • 2014
  • Effectiveness of geotextile mulches for slope restoration in semi-arid northern China
  • Three types of geotextiles including jute mat (JM), polyester mat (PM) and polyester net (PN) were installed on slopes and their effects on erosion control and vegetation growth were investigated by both laboratory and field experiments. The results
  • , in both 2010 and 2011. It is shown that the geotextiles improved plant growth by providing favourable soil conditions. The geotextiles were less effective in 2011 than in 2010 as a result of their degradation over time. The jute mat was most effective
  • , followed by polyester mat and polyester net. The jute mat degraded gradually and its role was replaced by that of vegetation. Thus the natural geotextile mat (jute mat) is preferred since it is more effective and more environmental friendly.
  • 2014
  • importance of the composition effect. The wage structure effect, in turn, is mainly determined by differences in reward for experience and tenure. Moreover, it concludes that the importance of these covariates for both effects is not equal along the wage
  • 2014
  • Effects of rice-husk ash on soil consistency and compactibility
  • This paper evaluates the effects of rice-husk ash with different rates of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% (v/v) on soil consistency limits (liquid limit, plastic limit) and soil compactibility parameters in Shanghai soils with different textures
  • 2014
  • In addressing endogeneity, this article presents a simultaneous instrumental variable analysis of the human rights effects of US counternarcotic aid in the Americas. The results show that while counternarcotic aid to regimes increases overall
  • violations of human rights, this effect is greater among democracies than autocracies. And with the exception of torture, this finding is consistent when disappearances, political imprisonment, and extrajudicial killings are also considered. The implication
  • of this research suggests that policy makers in Washington risk losing regional support for US drug control policies if US laws that govern the allocation of aid are not effectively implemented.
  • 2014
  • This article examines the effect of sectoral change on U.S. state unemployment during the Great Recession. Of the 4.1 percentage point increase in mean state unemployment between 2007 and 2009, increased structural change explains 0.6–1.18
  • percentage points, and increased estimated effects of structural change 0.8–2.7 percentage points. Despite the role of housing in the recession, neither construction nor any other one sector can account for the results. Although the pace and role
  • of structural change had returned to normal levels after the Great Recession, their effects persisted, raising mean state unemployment by 0.9–2.3 percentage points in 2011.
  • 2014
  • Family ; Household ; Kenya ; Nairobi ; Neighbourhood ; Neighbourhood effect ; Poverty ; Slum ; Social geography ; Urban area ; Violence
  • support for the negative effects associated with poverty traps in urban Africa. It concludes that neighbourhood characteristics matter for public safety in Nairobi, but frameworks for examining neighbourhood effects must consider the context of chronically
  • 2014
  • How ethnicity conditions the effect of oil and gas on civil conflict : a spatial analysis of Africa from 1990 to 2010
  • that there is very clear and strong evidence for a conditioning effect for groups with a monopoly over national-level political institutions. Oil and gas in grid cells with powerful, nationally represented groups reduce conflict risk, while otherwise increasing
  • 2014
  • regression (MGWR) prevents the limitations of fixed effects by exploring spatially stationary and non-stationary price effects. Besides reducing prediction errors, it is concluded that global model misspecifications arise from improper selected fixed effects.
  • 2014
  • to that end. The results show that spatial effects are determinant. Additionally, over-dispersion is decomposed into an unstructured independently and identically distributed effect and a spatially structured effect.
  • 2014