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  • deformation field. In the months following the main shock, an extensive GPS survey was carried out on the existing Central Apennines Geodetic Network (CAGeoNet), with the intention of collecting a robust data set and to study the co- and postseismic
  • The purpose of this work is to reconstruct the coseismic displacement field caused by the 6th April (Mw 6.3) main shock from a dense network of survey-mode stations surrounding the epicentral area and to characterize the early postseismic
  • deformation field of this Apenninic normal faulting earthquake. - (NF)
  • 2012
  • Active learning ; Constructivism ; Field experiment ; Physical geography ; Simulation ; Teaching ; Teaching of geography ; Traditional learning
  • Constructivist theory forms the basis for a wide range of active learning approaches, such as inquiry-based learning and problem-based learning. These approaches are inductive in that students build theory and generalizations from case studies
  • rather than more traditional approaches in which the students learn the theory and then study some examples. Students are typically more engaged in their active learning than they are in traditional approaches. Attempts to replace fieldwork with virtual
  • field trips have met with resistance, but there has been little research on the ways that virtual fieldwork could be improved. Animations in particular seem to engage students, although there is no evidence that they enhance the learning of physical
  • geography. The scholarship of teaching and learning physical geography offers challenges and opportunities for new and experienced faculty who have not previously published in this field.
  • 2012
  • The influence of local topography for wind direction on Mars : two examples of dune fields in crater basins
  • morphology and slip faces, the AA. conclude that the studied dune fields are influenced by topographically-controlled complex wind directions. Their morphological analysis reveals that inside Moreux Crater in particular, the topographic setting dominates
  • of complex dunes and dune fields. This analysis indicate that the studied dune systems is not the result of paleo-wind regimes.
  • the wind flow direction, leading to the development of a sand transport pathway encircling the central peak of the crater. The dune fields in Herschel Crater are also affected by winds controlled by variable topography as suggested by the presence
  • 2012
  • Quantitative study on influences of terraced field construction and check-dam siltation on soil erosion
  • To study the influences of terraced field construction and check-dam siltation on soil erosion of a watershed, the AA. built a simplified watershed model for the Loess Plateau hilly-gully region including terraced fields, slope farmlands, steep
  • -slope grasslands, and dam farmlands, and defined 3states of watershed (i.e., pioneer, intermediate, and climax stages, respectively). Then, the watershed soil erosion moduli at various stages were studied by using a revised universal soil loss equation
  • with the increase in terraced field area percentage, while the soil erosion modulus below the edge of gully exhibited a linear decline along with the increase in siltation heigh.
  • 2012
  • A field study was undertaken at the Greenwich Dunes, Price Edward Island, Canada. A conceptual model is proposed which shows how near-surface wind vectors are altered for 4 regional wind conditions : (a) onshore, detached; (b) onshore-oblique
  • equations driven by regional wind statistics would by unreliable and misleading. It is recommended that field studies routinely implement experimental designs that treat the near-surface wind field as comprising true vector quantities (with speed
  • and direction) in order that a more robust linkage between the regional (upper air) wind field and the sediment transport response across the beach-dune profile be established.
  • 2012
  • this perspective. Interpretations farmers place on tidy features such as straight lines and evenly coloured fields are explored through a cross-cultural study between Germany and Scotland. Results show how farmers read agricultural landscapes for signs of skilled
  • Studies of landscape aesthetics indicate that farmers have a unique perspective (seeing beauty) in the same landscapes that other publics find monotonous and boring. The paper uses Bourdieu’s theory of capital to explore why farmers hold
  • farming, and how their interpretation is dependent on knowledge of the connection between efficient farming practices and the appearance of forms and colours in the fields.
  • 2012
  • Patterns of soil organic carbon and nitrogen in relation to soil movement under different land uses in mountain fields (South Central Pyrenees)
  • A set of cultivated and abandoned fields with different ages of land abandonment, slope gradients and lengths were selected in mountain farmland of the Central Spanish Pyrenees to conduct this study. In each of the fields, total soil depth sampling
  • . Under the land use practices in the studied fields the bottom slope positions accumulate soil particles and act as sinks of soil carbon and nitrogen in these mountain agricultural landscapes.
  • 2012
  • Carbon fixation by biological soil crusts following revegetation of sand dunes in arid desert regions of China : A four-year field study
  • This study estimated the carbon fixation by 2 successional stages of biological soil crusts (BSCs) based on 4 years of field observations in the Shapotou region, located in the south-eastern fringe of the Tengger Desert, in Inner-Mongolia. Carbon
  • 2012
  • A demonstration of the geomorphological value of radio-controlled aerial vehicle imaging techniques in the study of the Hernád River
  • Airborne images obtained by radio-controlled aerial vehicles provide an alternative way for the environmental and biological researches as well as geomorphological studies. The model airplanes give the possibility for landscape mapping or count
  • field objects, which can't be done with any other methods (or just with bigger efforts and disturbance). The purpose of this article is to provide an example of the geomorphological application of airborne imaging techniques using radio-controlled model
  • airplanes and quadrocopters by the example of the Hernád River study in North-Hungary.
  • 2012
  • This progress report is the first of 3 overviews of important fields of study within contemporary glaciology, highlighting key developments in each field since 2005. The topics covered in this paper are : (1) the mass balance of glaciers and ice
  • 2012
  • A geomorphological and speleological approach in the study of hydrogeology of gypsum karst of Sorbas (SE Spain)
  • for better understanding the role of the karst aquifer in the groundwater recharge of the Aguas River. This study took place in the southern part of the Sorbas gypsum plateau with several steps and multiple field campaigns for geo-morphological
  • and geostructural data compilation and to record the different karst forms. Also water samples from the main springs have been collected for geochemical analysis. All field items have been inventoried with corresponding spatial position and compared
  • distribution together with structural alignments have been studied. - (NF)
  • 2012
  • Biogeosciences survey : Studying interactions of the biosphere with the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere
  • The biogeosciences cover all fields of the biological sciences and their interactions with the relevant Earth spheres (i.e. atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere), and are studied over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. The notion
  • 2012
  • are extremely relevant are discussed, including studies of basaltic dune fields, laboratory analyses, and the formation of linear dunes.
  • This progress report presents an overview of the latest planetary geomorphic studies characterizing aeolian processes on extraterrestrial surfaces. The understanding of aeolian processes on other planetary surfaces comes largely from Earth analog
  • studies, along with wind tunnel experiments and theoretical modeling. However, an important difference is that unlike terrestrial dunes most dunes on Venus and Mars are composed primarily of basaltic particles. Additional research is needed to understand
  • 2012
  • in the field. Test results of the PWRS are very satisfactory. The analysis presented in this study suggests in particular very good reproducibility of wind and rain conditions. The PWRS should therefore be a useful device for comparative in situ soil erosion
  • The aim of this study was to specify the wind and rainfall characteristics of the developed Portable Wind and Rainfall Simulator (PWRS) and to evaluate if its simulation quality and reproducibility is adequate for comparative soil erosion studies
  • measurements in the field and support the gathering of quantitative data on the relative importance of soil detachment rates between wind and water erosion, as well as windless and wind-driven rainfall.
  • 2012
  • Intermediate-field hydrogeological response induced by L’Aquila earthquake : the Acque Albule hydrothermal system (Central Italy)
  • The intermediate-field hydrological response to the 6th April 2009 L’Aquila earthquake has been studied using groundwater level data that were recorded by 6 piezometers in the Acque Albule Basin (Tivoli travertine quarry area) and in the Cornicolani
  • 2012
  • . In general, erosion rates appear to be high in Thompson Creek. The dominant processes of bank erosion are undercutting and bank collapse. However, the majority of moss-covered sites remained intact during the study period. The results of field investigations
  • This project evaluated the rate of bank erosion and effectiveness of mosses as a factor in reducing bank erosion in Thompson Creek, Virginia. The Thompson Creek watershed is dominated by non-cohesive sandy strata and a thick canopy cover. Field
  • surveys were conducted to record stream bank erosion and changes in moss patches over time. A variety of techniques, including repeat photography, erosion pins, visual observations, and measurements of channel morphology, were used in field surveys
  • 2012
  • Landslide susceptibility assessment in Limbe (SW Cameroon): A field calibrated seed cell and information value method
  • In this study, a raster-based data driven method involving seed cells is used to build a landslide susceptibility model for the Limbe area. Factors considered to be potential controls of slope failure within this area include slope gradient, rock
  • type, distance from roads, slope orientation, mean annual precipitation, soil type, land cover type, stream density and distance from stream. 63 small to very small translational and rotational landslide scars were identified through extensive field
  • 2012
  • Field-scale estimation of the volume percentage of rock fragments in stony soils by electrical resistivity
  • This paper presents a method that uses field spatial electrical resistivity measurements to determine the volume proportion of rock fragments. Based on the hypothesis that the electrical resistivity signal noise increases as the proportion of rock
  • fragments increases, a model was developed that uses the standard deviation of the apparent electrical resistivity measurements over a small area as an indicator of rock fragment contents. The model was tested on 3 study areas of several hectares containing
  • 2012
  • The aims of this study are to identify variables as well as thresholds controlling different obstacle mark morphometries and to incorporate these into a simple statistical model. To achieve this, available field and laboratory studies on that topic
  • are reviewed first. Secondly, the results of laboratory flume experiments are analysed and compared with other available laboratory and field data. The results of this work have shown a significant relationship between the morphometry of fluvial obstacle marks
  • 2012
  • This study describes a terrain analysis method that combines modeled and defined geomorphographic terrain attributes with detailed field knowledge and local mapping experience. 450 forest soil profiles were used to statistically analyze
  • the correlation to soil properties. The result is a two-stage hierarchical terrain classification approach that provides a differentiated and satisfactory reproduction of characteristic terrain attributes in the primary landscape units. As field surveys show
  • , described in this study, is a feasible spatial and hierarchical basis for decision-based prediction models.
  • 2012