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  • Anatolia ; Cluster analysis ; Dammed lake ; Discriminant analysis ; Hydrochemistry ; Monitoring ; Multivariate analysis ; Principal components analysis ; Space time ; Turkey ; Water ; Water pollution ; Water quality ; Water resources ; Watershed
  • Multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA), were applied to evaluate the temporal/spatial variations of water quality data sets
  • data sets, apportionment of pollution sources/factors and the design of a monitoring network for the effective management of water resources. Discriminant analysis showed better results for data reduction and pattern recognition during both spatial
  • and temporal analysis.
  • 2012
  • This paper is an analysis of the constituencies in the electoral system that selects representatives for the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. Emphasized are the factors that engendered Slovenia’s specific three-level organization
  • of constituencies. The last part is an analysis of the organization of constituencies and electoral districts in light of fulfilling the principles of voter equality, homogeneity and compactness.
  • 2012
  • China ; Cluster analysis ; Factor analysis ; Heavy metals ; Shaanxi ; Soil ; Soil pollution ; Urban area ; XRF scanning ; Xian
  • The concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, and V in urban topsoil samples collected from inside the Xi'an Second Ringroad, northwestern China were measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Correlation coefficient analysis, factor analysis
  • and cluster analysis were used to analyze the data and to identify the possible sources of these heavy metals. Three main sources of these heavy metals were identified. Pb and Cu originate from traffic. Co, Cr, and Zn mainly derive from industry sources
  • 2012
  • Controls on a scale explicit analysis of sheet erosion
  • Experiment plot ; Plant cover ; Precipitation ; Principal components analysis ; Rill wash ; Soil erosion ; Soil properties ; South Africa ; Splash ; Water erosion ; Watershed
  • and topographic conditions were used to identify the main controlling factors of sheet erosion. Results from a principal component analysis suggested that sheet erosion is mainly controlled by rainfall characteristics (rainfall intensity and amount) and soil
  • The aim of this study was to compare sediment yields from small and large plots installed under different environmental conditions and to interpret these results in terms of the main mechanisms and controlling factors of sheet erosion. Data
  • 2012
  • Economic efficiency ; Germany ; Landscape ; Landscape analysis ; Landscape planning ; Methodology ; Municipality ; Nature conservation ; Planning ; Regional analysis ; effectiveness ; municipality ; nature conservation ; quantitative research
  • by landscape plans. To fill that gap, the paper focuses on the implementation of those measures. Furthermore, it discusses the factors and framework conditions which are crucial for this implementation. The potential factors and conditions of influence were
  • generally a very large number of measures. Factors with a positive effect on the implementation of landscape planning measures are pointed out.
  • 2012
  • Econometry ; Europe ; Internal migration ; Interregional migration ; Local amenities ; Migration factor ; Quality of life ; Regional analysis ; Socio-economic system ; Spatial equilibrium ; Territoriality
  • Amenidades locales ; Análisis regional ; Calidad de la vida ; Econometría ; Equilibrio espacial ; Estructura socioeconómica ; Europa ; Factor de migración ; Migración interior ; Migración interregional ; Territorialidad
  • 2012
  • Favorability values of geological, vegetation and relief factors for the development of soil creep landforms
  • Cantabrian Mountains ; Creep ; Earth surface processes ; Lithology ; Micromorphology ; Slope ; Slope dynamics ; Soil properties ; Spain ; Statistical analysis ; Topography ; Vegetation
  • The variables considered in the analysis were : 1) geological-geomorphologic variables : bedrock geology, surficial formations (lithologic and genetic classification), vegetation and presence of rock area, and 2) relief variables : elevation, slope
  • , aspect, curvature, relief index, flow accumulation and Compound Topographic Index (CTI). The influence of each variable in the development of the creep landforms was studied by favorability analysis. The results show that presence of creep landforms
  • 2012
  • Searching for useful non-systematic tree-ring data sources for flood hazard analysis using GIS tools
  • maps, the AA. defined 3 different indexes concerning the occurrence of dendrogeomorphological evidence. A Consensus Decision Making procedure (CDM) was carried out in order to weight each factor individually prior to combining the factors. As a result
  • , the AA. obtained information about the most appropriate watersheds for palaeoflood research using tree-ring analysis. A total of 189 watersheds appeared to be highly interesting for tree-ring studies. Of these only 17 have flow gauges, so data concerning
  • 2012
  • Air temperature ; British Columbia ; Canada ; Equilibrium model ; Mountain ; Periglacial features ; Permafrost ; Soil temperature ; Spatial analysis ; Thermal regime ; Tree line ; Yukon
  • , expressed as freezing and thawing n-factors, vary significantly with vegetation type and hence elevational band, with the lowest values for the forested zone and the highest for non-maritime alpine tundra. Equilibrium modelling carried out for one site
  • in the southern part of the region and one in the northern part illustrates the impacts of the differing n-factors on trends in mean ground surface temperature with elevation. Given the range of air temperatures and n-factors, permafrost is possible throughout
  • 2012
  • The geographical analysis of water problems
  • Climatic change ; Climatic warming ; Idaho ; Meltwater ; Model ; Oregon ; Precipitation ; Seasonal variation ; Spatial analysis ; Stream ; Stream flow ; United States of America ; Washington State ; Water ; Water resources
  • , also influence streamflow trends in the PNW. In addition, the spatial analysis model results show that considering various geographic factors help clarify the dynamics of streamflow trends over a large geographical area, supporting a spatial analysis
  • ) model results show spatial gradients of local R2 values with consistently higher local R2 values in the northern Cascades. This finding illustrates that different hydrologic landscape factors, such as geology and seasonal distribution of precipitation
  • 2012
  • Marginal revenue of land and total factor productivity in Chinese agriculture : evidence from spatial analysis
  • 2012
  • China ; Decision making process ; Environmental management ; Geographical information system ; Model ; Natural hazards ; Neural network ; Soil properties ; Spatial analysis ; Urban area ; Urban construction ; Urban planning ; Zhejiang
  • information system (GIS) and techniques of grid, geospatial, and BP neural network analysis. Four factor groups, comprising 9 separate subfactors of geo-environmental features, were selected for the model : geomorphic type, slope, site soil type, stratum
  • Using geo-environmental factors and the land use status of Hangzhou, China, a back-propagation (BP) neural network model for the evaluation of the geo-environmental suitability of land for urban construction was established with a geographic
  • 2012
  • Spatial analysis of morphometric indices : the case of Bolu pull-apart basin, western section of North Anatolian Fault System, Turkey
  • Anatolia ; Cluster analysis ; Fault ; Geomorphometry ; Impact ; Index ; Neotectonics ; Spatial analysis ; Turkey
  • to height ratio (Vf), asymmetry factor (Af), and Stream Length Gradient Index (SL) are applied to the tectonic basin area. To detect the deviation from spatial randomness of applied indices, the weighted correlation coefficient Moran's I is used, and results
  • 2012
  • Correlating vegetation, water use, and surface temperature in a semiarid city : a multiscale analysis of the impacts of irrigation by single-family residences
  • The geographical analysis of water problems
  • Arid area ; Arizona ; Heat island ; LANDSAT ; Remote sensing ; Semi-arid area ; Society-environment relationship ; Space time ; Spatial analysis ; Temperature ; Town ; United States of America ; Vegetation ; Vegetation index ; Water use
  • factors as well as by topography and wind patterns. Findings also suggest that outdoor water use aside from irrigation, particularly the use of swimming pools, promotes cooling without elevating the NDVI. Temporal analysis reveal that most residential
  • normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and surface temperatures, parcel-level zoning and assessor data, and residential water use records. Spatial analysis results demonstrate that cooling from vegetative evapotranspiration is mediated by development
  • 2012
  • Main geologic factors controlling site response during the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake
  • The analysis of the damage following the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake clearly indicates a strict control of the local geological conditions over the distribution of the effects. This paper illustrates some of the most significant cases of local effects
  • 2012
  • variability in the correction factors for snow at the uppermost weather station. Further improvements in precipitation estimations would require an analysis of the dominant processes controlling this variability. - (NF)
  • to compute correction factors for the entire precipitation gauge network. This paper highlights the need for precipitation correction in precipitation analyses over snow-dominated mountain areas. This study also provides evidence of a considerable interannual
  • 2012
  • Spatial and temporal change in the potential evapotranspiration sensitivity to meteorological factors in China (1960-2007)
  • China ; Climatic data ; Climatic trend ; Evapotranspiration ; Radiation ; Sensitivity analysis ; Space time ; Temperature ; Watershed ; Wind speed
  • 2012
  • Immigration, factor endowments and the productive structure of Spanish regions, 1996–2005
  • 2012
  • [b1] Department of Economic Analysis, Univ., Valencia, Espagne
  • Are organo-mineral complexes and allophane content determinant factors for the carbon level in Chilean volcanic soils ?
  • Carbon ; Chile ; Geochemistry ; Regression analysis ; Soil ; Soil properties ; Volcanic soil
  • 2012
  • Quantitative geomorphic analysis of asbestos dispersion and pollution from natural sources: the case-history of the Pollino National Park, southern Italy
  • and geomorphological mapping, quantitative geomorphic analysis, petrological and mineralogical analyses of outcropping crystalline-metamorphic rocks, aerosol analyses, and remote sensing investigations. This study allowed to assess the degree of environmental hazard
  • due to release of asbestos fibres. The comparison of natural and human factors in controlling asbestos release in areas characterized by different morphological conditions revealed that erosional (mainly fluvial) processes promoted an intense spreading
  • 2012