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  • Agricultural growth, environmental degradation, poverty and nutrition : links and policy implications
  • Agricultural production ; Agricultural technique ; Agriculture ; Environmental degradation ; Nutrition ; Poverty ; Rural development
  • The links and feedbacks between agricultural growth, environmental degradation, and poverty are complex and manifold. This paper examines these linkages under two situations : when new yield-increasing agricultural technologies are available
  • The impact of environmental degradation on grain production in China, 1975-1990
  • Agricultural productivity ; Agricultural technique ; Agriculture ; Cereal ; China ; Crop ; Environmental degradation ; Regional disparities ; Soil erosion
  • The AA. hypothesize that environmental degradation had a major effect on grain production in many of China's agricultural areas. A nationwide fixed effect grain-yield function is introduced which incorporates both traditional input variables
  • and an additional set of variables that reflect trends in environmental degradation at the provincial level. The model is estimated using time-series data for the period from 1978 to 1980.
  • Halting land degradation
  • Overview of the major world environmental problems. - (DWG)
  • Land degradation: creation and destruction
  • Environment ; Environmental degradation ; Human impact ; Man-environment relations ; Population pressure ; Resource management
  • Excellent discussion of the physical and human interactions that result in land degradation. Material organized as either creative destruction and destructive creation - the two are linked for in the interest of sustaining human population, one must
  • first destroy in order to create. Thoughtful conclusion on how land degradation can be minimized. - (DWG)
  • Environmental crisis of the Küküllõ's and the Middle Maros area
  • Applied ecology ; Applied geography ; Environment ; Environmental degradation ; Pollution ; Romania ; Transylvania
  • Author discusses the consequences of environmental degradation and pollution in the Küküllõ and Middle-Maros area Transsylvania, Romania. - (JS)
  • The new world disorder : is environmental security the cure ?
  • Special issue on integrating natural and social environmental science
  • Carrying capacity ; Environment ; Environmental degradation ; Himalaya ; Mountain ; Nepal ; Security ; Society-environment relationship
  • Author criticizes the two extreme views of environmental security : the pessimist view (the theory of Himalayan environmental degradation) that population is growing while the resource bas eis static or declining and the optimist view (heralded
  • by Julian Simon) that there are no environmental limits because of unfailing human ingenuity. He suggest rejecting the mutually opposed orthodoxies for socially informed understanding of environmental security that considers types of social solidarity
  • Environmental (degradation and uncertain) security : reifying the conditions for social and environmental degradation in Uzbekistan
  • Central Asia ; Environment ; Environmental degradation ; Environmental security ; Geopolitics ; Political regime ; Security ; Uzbekistan
  • Environmental degradation and productive transformation in Mexico : the contradictions of crisis management
  • An overview of Mexico's environmental problems and how the public and private sectors are beginning to deal with them. The highest priority is directed to air pollution in the Basin of Mexico. Whereas confidence in governmental action has fallen
  • , popular efforts to deal with local environmental problems are still poorly developed. - (DWG)
  • Environmental degradation in the inner Alentejo = desertification ?
  • Alentejo ; Climatic variation ; Climatology ; Congress ; Desertification ; Environment ; Environmental degradation ; International Geographical Union ; Portugal ; Risk
  • inclus dans le Symposium Climate and environmental change UGI - Commission on climatology. - (DBF)
  • Defining degradation : the impacts of swidden on forests in Northern Thailand
  • Special issue on integrating natural and social environmental science
  • Environment ; Environmental degradation ; Ethnic community ; Forest ; Land clearing ; Shifting cultivation ; Thailand ; Vegetation dynamics
  • A reevaluation of the usual view that shifting cultivation leads to forest degradation, soil erosion, water shortages, and other undesirable changes. Author examines the swidden farming near three upland villages in northern Thailand. swiddens
  • Evaluating environmental sensitivity at the basin scale through the use of geographic information systems and remotely sensed data : an example covering the Agri basin (Southern Italy)
  • The sensitivity of the Mediterranean environment to degradation caused by land use and climate change. Special issue
  • Arid area ; Basilicata ; Desertification ; Ecosystem ; Environmental degradation ; Geographical information system ; Italy ; Mediterranean area ; Remote sensing ; Soil erosion
  • The aim of this study is to develop a methodological reference framework, for use at the basin scale, from which environmental sensitivity can be evaluated. The results of a 3-year investigation into the degradation processes related
  • to desertification in the Agri basin environment (Southern Italy) are presented. Different degradation stages or desertification risks are also evaluated at the plot scale. These data, and the derived results, are integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS
  • ) along with regional scale information layers related to selected environmental and socio-economic factors.
  • Degradation, drought, and dissent : an environmental history of colonial Michoacán, West Central Mexico
  • Climatic variation ; Colonial period ; Drought ; Environmental degradation ; Historical geography ; Land use ; Mexico ; Michoacán ; Palaeolimnology ; Source of documentation
  • Climate impacts of environmental degradation in Sudan
  • Aridity ; Climate ; Climatic data ; Climatic variability ; Climatic variation ; Environmental degradation ; Human impact ; Sudan
  • Economic development and environmental management in Malaysia
  • Development ; Development strategy ; Economic development ; Environment ; Environmental degradation ; Environmental management ; Malaysia
  • Through a series of five years plans, the economy has greatly expanded. The A. highlights the consequences of these economic changes to the Malaysian environment, summarises measures taken by government to reduce consequential environmental problems
  • Environment ; Environmental conservation ; Environmental degradation ; Environmental management ; Hungary ; Land use ; Leisure ; Map ; Resource management
  • The development of an environmental assessment map in this recreation area allows for further research in the protection and conservation of this environmentally at risk area. - (JS)
  • Landscape Degradation Modelling: An Environmental Impact Assessment for Rural Landscape Prioritisation
  • EIA ; Environment ; Environmental degradation ; Environmental management ; Haizuka Dam ; Impact study ; Japan ; Landscape ; Landscape Degradation Model ; Methodology ; Modelling ; landscape compartments ; rural landscape
  • Landscape Degradation Assessment (LDA) of rural areas can play a crucial role in landscape planning. Japan lacks quantitative and cumulative Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) methodologies, especially in the area of LDA. Although a decision
  • support system is in place for very large projects (Class-1) in Japan, EIAs for much smaller projects are non-existent, which often results in ambiguity with regard to environmental problems. To improve the transparency of the decision-making process
  • for rural landscape planning, increase the scale of the assessment of project size to a more strategic local level, and enhance effective communication with decision-makers, a new EIA procedure is proposed with the development of a Landscape Degradation
  • Model (LDM) for rural areas in Japan. The procedure is based on the equation, LD=Σ kI/V, where LD represents the degradation coefficient of the landscape compartments, Σ kI represents the cumulative impact of human activities, and V quantifies
  • Land degradation and its control strategies in China
  • Afforestation ; China ; Cultivated land ; Desertification ; Environment ; Environmental management ; Nutrient ; Pollution ; Salinisation ; Soil degradation ; Soil erosion ; Statistics ; Water erosion ; Water resources ; Wind erosion
  • Following the discussion of the causes and disasters of land degradation, this paper presents the achievements gained in prevention and control of land degradation since 1949. The several control strategic measures in combating land degradation
  • [b1] Dep. Natural Conservation, National Environmental Protection Agency, Beijing, Chine
  • Environmental change in the Kalahari : integrated land degradation studies for nonequilibrium dryland environments
  • Arid area ; Botswana ; Ecosystem ; Hydrochemistry ; Kalahari ; Model ; Nutrient ; Over-grazing ; Pastoral ; Scrub ; Soil degradation ; Soil moisture ; Soil water
  • Patterns of ecological change, notably increased bush dominance, have been linked to increased cattle-grazing intensity, but it remains contentious whether these changes represent land degradation. Given the inherent ecological variability
  • of drylands, the AA. argue that degradation assessments should be based, not on ecological observations alone, but on the study of long-term changes in pastoral production figures and on changes in the ecologically determining factors of soil water and soil
  • nutrient avaibility. They present a model of ecosystem dynamics that does not display bush encroachment as a definite form of land degradation.
  • Crossing the thresholds : human ecology and historical patterns of landscape degradation
  • Agricultural land use ; Common agricultural policy ; Environmental degradation ; Historical geography ; Human ecology ; Human impact ; Iceland ; Modelling ; Over-grazing ; Soil erosion ; Tephrochronology
  • The AA. assess the extent to which common land domestic grazing pressures were the primary external force causing soil erosion and land degradation during the period of occupation from ca. 874 AD in Southern Iceland. They first provide field
  • observation of soil erosion, temporally defined by tephrochronology, to highlight the extent of land degradation during this period. The tragedy of the commons explanation of degradation is then assessed by evaluating historic documentary sources
  • , and by environmental reconstruction and modeling of historic grazing pressures.
  • Environmental implications of socio-économic change in se-Spain
  • Agricultural mechanization ; Agricultural retreat ; Agriculture ; Desertification ; Economic impact ; Environmental degradation ; Irrigation ; Rural change ; Social change ; Soil erosion ; Spain