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  • Eden, Earth Day, and Ecology: Landscape Restoration as Metaphor and Mission
  • Earth Day ; Ecological restoration ; Ecology ; Eden ; Landscape ; Man-environment relations ; Nature conservation ; Philosophy ; Value system ; Wilderness ; ecology ; landscape restoration
  • Ecologic Crisis’ (1967) and the Earth Day reform mission (1970), convergent redemptive philosophies realigned ecotheology and landscape restoration along Franciscan lines, shedding commandments to subdue and conquer for injunctions to live in harmony
  • with nature. Previously condemned as the antithesis of Eden, wilderness was transformed from dreaded chaos into a redemptive realm that led ecological restorers to idealise and worship supposedly virgin scenes. Instead of getting civilised, wild landscapes
  • This paper sketches the religious roots of landscape restoration, showing how it morphed from a theological to an environmental agenda, while retaining the fervour of a sacred mission. In the aftermath of Lynn White, Jr.’s ‘Historical Roots of Our
  • were treasured as locales of spiritual and bodily renewal. Favoured locales defiled by human occupance and imprint were restored to simulated wildness. Perceived analogies with archaeology, art, architecture and medicine further shape the aims
  • and conventions of landscape restoration, widening enduring and unavoidable gulfs between restoration intention and performance, precept and practice.
  • River of dreams : on the gulf between theoretical and practical aspects of an upland river restoration
  • Conceptual model ; Decision making process ; Ecology ; England and Wales ; Environmental management ; Gravel ; Model ; Rehabilitation ; River bed ; Stream ; United Kingdom ; Watershed
  • This paper is concerned with development and application of a conceptual model of the river restoration process and, through a specific case study, a demonstration of the challenges that arise when combining ecological and geomorphological
  • principles with social and economic issues. This, it demonstrates the difference between the ideal goals of river restoration and the practical determinants of the nature of a river restoration that derive from individual and community goals.
  • Historical perspectives on river restoration design in the USA
  • Classification ; Concept ; Ecological restoration ; History of sciences ; Hydrosystem ; Numerical model ; Stream
  • River restoration as a science needs to balance numerical analysis with a more general systems understanding typical of a classification-based approach. Davis' nomenclature and Gilbert’s analytical processes are both necessary to understand
  • and discuss landscape geomorphology. Similarly, both Rosgen’s classification system, or one like it, and other more analytical, process-based examinations, are necessary for a comprehensive approach to river restoration. It is clear that multiple viewpoints
  • and approaches triangulate towards a more thorough understanding of a system and will increase the probability of successful restoration. This will most likely include system-wide observation and classification married to numerical process modeling.
  • Changes in physico-chemical, microbial and enzymatic activities during restoration of degraded sodic land : Ecological suitability of mixed forest over monoculture plantation
  • Biogeochemistry ; Ecological restoration ; India ; Land use ; Mixed forest ; Reforestation ; Saline soil ; Soil ; Soil properties ; UttarPradesh
  • The aim of this study was to determine efficient ecological model for the restoration of degraded sodic land. The bulk density, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) reduced during restoration under both, pure
  • . The results showed that afforestation with multiple tree species restored soil properties more efficiently than monoculture plantations, and is a relatively good option for sustainable rehabilitation of sodic lands.
  • [b1] Restoration Ecology Group, CSIR-National Research Inst., Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, Inde
  • Oral histories as a baseline of landscape restoration – co-management and watershed knowledge in Jukajoki river
  • Cultural studies ; Ecological restoration ; Ecosystem ; Finland ; Governance ; Karelia ; Knowledge ; Landscape ; Local population ; Watershed
  • collaborative governance with a formal role of local ecological knowledge as a future management option for this area. It concludes that watershed restoration and associated baseline information benefits from the oral histories recorded with people who still
  • , Finland. Firstly, it demonstrates that local knowledge, including optic histories, provides information about pre-industrial fisheries, fish ecology and behaviour and bird habitats. Secondly, it shows that empirical oral histories conceptualize
  • Soil detachment by overland flow under different vegetation restoration models in the Loess Plateau of China
  • China ; Ecological restoration ; Erodibility ; Erosion control ; Gully erosion ; Model ; Plant cover ; Shaanxi ; Soil erosion ; Vegetation ; Water erosion
  • This study was performed to study the effects of vegetation restoration models on soil detachment by overland flow and soil resistance to rill erosion as reflected by rill erodibility and critical shear stress. The undisturbed soil samples were
  • collected from five 37-year-restored lands of abandoned farmland, korshinsk peashrub land, black locust land, Chinese pine land and mixed forest land of amorpha and Chinese pine. It is shown that vegetation recovery decrease rill erodibility but increase
  • critical shear stress. Soil cohesion and plant roots have great effect on soil detachment process. Besides, the low rill erodibility in the restored lands always had a low soil detachment capacity, while the critical shear stress in the restored lands
  • varied non-monotonically with detachment capacity. The mixed forest land of amorpha and Chinese pine was considered as the best restoration model for its important role in reducing soil detachment capacity.
  • Comparison of active and passive stream restoration : effects on the physical habitats
  • Biogeography ; Channel geometry ; Denmark ; Ecological restoration ; Fish ; Habitat ; Meander ; Model ; Stream
  • The AA. compare 2 commonly used methods in small Danish streams to improve the physical condition : re-meandering and passive restoration through cease of maintenance. The investigation included measurement of the physical conditions in 29 stream
  • reaches covering 4 different groups : 1) re-meandered streams, 2) LDC streams (the least disturbed streams available), 3) passively restored streams (>10 years stop of maintenance) and 4) channelized and non-restored streams. The in-stream habitats were
  • compared through analysis of the measured physical parameters and by applying a habitat model. The AA. found that re-meandering is a more effective way of re-creating near-natural physical conditions in small streams compared to passive restoration. However
  • , based on habitat suitability modelling, the change to the physical condition did not translate into improved habitat suitability for young of the year brown trout highlighting the value of using several methods when evaluating restoration success.
  • Using a historical aerial photograph analysis to inform trout habitat restoration efforts
  • Aerial photography ; Bank erosion ; Channel geometry ; Ecological restoration ; Erosion control ; Fish ; Habitat ; Photointerpretation ; Riparian vegetation ; Stream ; United States of America ; Utah
  • Restoration of the upper Strawberry River included bank stabilization techniques because it was assumed that excessive bank erosion was degrading spawning habitat for Bonneville cutthroat trout (BCT). Using a long-term aerial photograph record
  • as riparian cover increased in the decades before restoration, indicating a process of natural recovery. Furthermore, it was found that the percentage of fine sediment in the streambed before restoration was insufficient to affect BCT spawning success
  • . The results highlight how a historical analysis can be used to identify the sources of habitat degradation and inform the selection of restoration goals and strategies.
  • [b1] Intermountain Center for River Rehabilitation and Restoration, Dep. of Watershed Sciences, Utah State Univ., Logan, Etats-Unis
  • Monitoring considerations for a dynamic dune restoration project : Pacific Rim National Park Reserve, British Columbia, Canada.
  • Biogeomorphology ; British Columbia ; Canada ; Coastal dune ; Coastal environment ; Concept ; Ecological restoration ; Erosion control ; Resilience ; Wind erosion
  • In this paper, a brief review of key terms and concepts used in the emerging field of dynamic dune restoration is provided and expanded upon with respect to geomorphologic considerations. A case study of a recent dynamic restoration effort
  • , is thought to be associated with a rapid decline in aeolian activity, system stabilization and accelerated ecological succession. Preliminary results on the response of the dune system to mechanical removal of Ammophila are presented to provide the foundation
  • for a research framework to guide the broader restoration project. Recommendations for improving treatment methodologies and monitoring protocols are provided to aid future restoration projects of this nature.
  • Hydro-ecology of the Dutch polder landscape
  • this of the processes in the ecology of the landscape which change these habitats. The results of this study can be applied to restoration projects, if desired target situation is defined. The technical and sustainable measures for restoration have to be incorporated
  • Effects of ecological restoration projects on land use and land cover change and its influences on territorial NPP in Xinjiang, China
  • Arid area ; Carbon sequestration ; China ; Ecological restoration ; Forest ; Land use ; Primary productivity ; Semi-arid area ; Xinjiang
  • This study used net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the arid and semi-arid ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the land use and land cover change (LULCC) driven by ecological restoration programs in Xinjiang
  • activities produced an obvious positive effect in the increase of total NPP, especially for forest land. As a result, ecological restoration programs produced positive impacts on forest expansion and carbon sequestration in Xinjiang.
  • Response of vegetation restoration to climate change and human activities in Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Region
  • China ; Climatic change ; Ecological restoration ; Environmental management ; Gansu ; Human impact ; Ningxia ; Shaanxi ; Space time ; Sustainable development ; Vegetation ; Vegetation index
  • , spatial-temporal distribution and reasons of vegetation restoration, using methods of linear regression, the Hurst Exponent, standard deviation and other methods. From 2000 to 2009, the NDVI of the study area was improved progressively, with a linear
  • tendency. The vegetation restoration is characterized by 2 fast-growing periods, with an S-shaped increasing curve. Climate change and human activities are 2 driving forces in vegetation restoration; moreover anthropogenic factors such as Grain for Green
  • Project were the main causes leading to an increasing trend of NDVI on local scale. The Hurst Exponent of NDVI time series shows that the vegetation restoration was sustainable.
  • Performance of exclosure in restoring soil fertility : A case of Gubalafto district in North Wello Zone, northern highlands of Ethiopia
  • Agropedology ; Arid area ; Ecological restoration ; Ethiopia ; Northern Ethiopia ; Soil ; Soil degradation ; Soil properties
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of exclosures on soil fertility restoration and examine its variability across age, agro-ecology and landscape position. The study was conducted in the Gubalafto district of North Wello Zone, northern
  • consider soil fertility restoration variation with age, agro-ecology and management conditions of the respective exclosure.
  • Ethiopian highlands. Vegetation cover was estimated and soil samples were collected from 3 age categories (open sites, 10- and 27-year-old exclosures), 2 agro-ecological zones (mild and cool) and in 3 landscape positions (lower, mid and upper). The samples
  • Spatial and seasonal variations of soil salinity following vegetation restoration in coastal saline land in eastern China
  • China ; Eastern China ; Ecological restoration ; Island ; Saline soil ; Salinity ; Seasonal variation ; Shanghai ; Soil ; Soil moisture ; Soil properties ; Vegetation
  • In Chongmind Island, eastern China, the AA. explored the way vegetation restoration affected the profile distributions of soil moisture and salinity in various seasons in naturally salt-affected coastal saline land. In four types of vegetation, five
  • soil cores were acquired in the 80 cm depth range. Salt profiles showed the higher values in surface soil in control plots, whereas the pattern of soil salinity showed the reverse trend under vegetation. The effect of vegetation restoration
  • [b1] Shangai Key Lab. for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco-Restoration, East China Normal Univ., Shangai, Chine
  • Response of temporal variation of soil moisture to vegetation restoration in semi-arid Loess Plateau, China
  • Arid area ; China ; Ecological restoration ; Experiment plot ; Land use ; Semi-arid area ; Soil moisture ; Sustainable development ; Vegetation
  • In this study, the soil moisture among 8 typical types of vegetation is investigated and compared during 3 rainy seasons to evaluate the ecohydrological effect of vegetation restoration in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. The results show
  • that soil moisture content decreases drastically after vegetation restoration, with no significant difference in near-surface soil moisture among the vegetation types but significant differences in the sub-surface and deep soil layers. It is highlighted
  • that introduced vegetation consumes excessive amount of soil moisture and induces temporally stable soil desiccation, threatening the sustainability of vegetation restoration. The study results suggest that the current planting density of introduced vegetation
  • [b1] State Key Lab. of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, CAS, Beijing, Chine
  • Applied ecology ; Carbon cycle ; Carbon sequestration ; Derbyshire ; Ecological restoration ; England ; Peat bog ; United Kingdom ; Watershed
  • The AA. measured the carbon budget of 8 sites: 4 restored-revegetated sites, 2 unrestored bare soil control sites, and 2 intact vegetated controls over 2 years (2006-2008). They considered the following flux pathways: dissolved organic carbon (DOC
  • (decreased source and/or increased sink of carbon) after restoration; this improvement was mainly in the form of a reduction in the size of the net carbon source, but for one restored site the measured carbon budget after 4 years of restoration was greater
  • than observed for vegetated controls. Therefore, the carbon sequestration benefit of peatland restoration is evaluated.
  • Land restoration by fodder shrubs in a semi-arid agro-pastoral area of Morocco. Effects on soils
  • Agropedology ; Ecological restoration ; Geochemistry ; Marrakesh ; Morocco ; Organic materials ; Pastoral ; Plantation ; Salinity ; Scrub ; Semi-arid area ; Soil ; Soil degradation ; Soil properties
  • . The results contribute to the evaluation of land restoration interventions in semi-arid degraded lands.
  • Channel adjustments and implications for river management and restoration
  • Central Italy ; Channel geometry ; Drainage network ; Ecological restoration ; Fluvial hydrology ; Human impact ; Hydraulic works ; Italy ; Northern Italy ; Stream
  • trajectory are or can be used in river management and restoration. The first part of the paper deals with channel adjustments and summarizes the results of recent studies carried out on twelve rivers in northern and central Italy. The second part illustrates
  • Are wildfire mitigation and restoration of historic forest structure compatible ? A spatial modeling assessment
  • Colorado ; Ecology ; Environmental management ; Forest ; Forest fire ; Geographical information system ; Model ; Mountain ; Spatial analysis ; United States of America
  • This study evaluates where both wildfire mitigation and restoration of historic forest structure are potentially needed in the ponderosa pine-dominated montane forest zone of Boulder Country, Colorado. Two spatial models were overlain : a model
  • of potential fireline intensity and a model of historic fire frequency. The results indicate that both wildfire mitigation and restoration of historic forest structure are needed in only a small part of the study area, primarily at low elevations.
  • Six rules for the rapid restoration of degraded lands: synthesis of 17 case studies in tropical and Mediterranean climates
  • Arid area ; Biodiversity ; Ecological restoration ; Ecology ; Erosion control ; Mediterranean area ; Soil erosion ; Soil properties