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  • Czech Republic ; Drinking water ; Hydraulic works ; Reservoir ; Silting ; Water economics ; Water needs
  • Increased water consumption in the Ostrava Metropolitan Area made the construction of reservoirs in the Moravian-Silesian Beskides Mts inevitable. Two drinking water reservoirs have been constructed : Šance Reservoir on the upper Ostravice river
  • 1997
  • Drinking water ; Estimation ; European part of Russia ; Pollution ; Volga ; Water ; Water pollution ; Water quality
  • 1997
  • The effects of road development were studied in a remote high-altitude Central Himalaya of India. Distribution of schools and postal services was not affected by this new road network, but health-care facilities, drinking water supplies, electricity
  • 1997
  • Drinking water ; Epidemic ; Health ; Risk ; Water ; Water supply
  • 1997
  • Distribution network ; Drinking water ; Enquiry ; Facilities ; Malagasy Republic ; Sanitation improvement ; Urban geography ; Urbanism ; Viability ; Water ; Water economics ; Water management ; Water supply
  • 1997
  • Agricultural hydrology ; Drinking water ; France ; Freshwater environment ; Hydraulic works ; Landscape ; Limousin ; Rural area ; Rural tourism ; Water ; Water quality ; Water resources
  • 1997
  • Africa ; Bamako ; Cairo ; Degradation ; Drinking water ; Environment ; Environmental management ; Environmental perception ; Geographical information system ; Inundation ; Landslide ; Natural hazards ; Ouagadougou ; Remote sensing ; Rural-urban
  • 1997
  • Fog : a possible solution to rural water problems ?
  • Countryside ; Fog ; Fresh water ; Project ; South Africa ; Water ; Water needs ; Water resources
  • Acute water shortages are experienced regularly in many areas. It is thus of the greatest importance to identify other sources of water in these regions. Fog is one such new source of fresh water and shows a significant potential for use
  • as a domestic water supply, notably the South African Fog Water Project. - (AJC)
  • 1997
  • The pending water crisis
  • Marketing channel ; Water ; Water economics ; Water management ; Water resources ; Water supply ; World
  • Recent investigations conclude that there are many areas where the demands are growing beyond water availability and problems arise from intensive withdrawals, mismanagement, or simply low availability. Water demand is no longer an evident necessity
  • but is one of the claims to be subjected to decision making. Managing the demand of water in the framework of the objectives of a national socio-economic development plan is a challenge in the water planning process. This planning requires strong mechanisms
  • 1997
  • Anthropogenic changes in water conditions in the Lublin area
  • Anthropogenic impact on water conditions (Vistula and Oder river basins)
  • Groundwater ; Hydraulic works ; Lublin ; Poland ; Urban development ; Water ; Water circulation ; Water needs ; Water quality ; Water resources ; Watershed
  • The development of the city of Lublin has been closely associated with the exploitation of water resources in the Bystrzyca river basin. The extension of this city ditinctly affects the water conditions of the middle part of this basin. Lublin
  • is supplied with water almost solely from underground resources, a situation which has been dictated by excellent-quality and easy-available underground waters and small resources of surface water. A high level of exploitation of the underground waters has led
  • to considerable changes in water circulation.
  • 1997
  • Water resource conflicts in the Middle East
  • Asia ; Conflict ; Euphrates ; Jordan ; Middle East ; Nile ; Political geography ; Water ; Water economics ; Water management ; Water resources
  • Analysis of the water resource conflicts in the three major international river basins of the Middle East: the Tigris-Euphrates, Nile, and Jordan-Yarmuk. - (DWG)
  • 1997
  • The water resources in the Euphrates river and the Tigris river valleys and political relation between countries concerned
  • Asia ; Geopolitics ; Iraq ; Middle East ; Political geography ; Runoff ; Syria ; Turkey ; Water ; Water management ; Water resources
  • There is a view that owing to the scarcity of the water resources and rapid increase in population in the Middle East and existing of large rivers, the contradictions over the water resources have become increasingly sharp among the countries
  • concerned, and a war for water will soon break out in the region. The AA. put forward a different view, believing that no war for controlling the water resources will take place in the region.
  • 1997
  • Water management in South Asia in the 21st century
  • Asia ; China ; Climatic variation ; Global change ; India ; Irrigation ; Model ; Pakistan ; Population growth ; Simulation ; South Korea ; Southern Asia ; Water ; Water deficit ; Water resources
  • Results of the impact of climate change on water resources in 4 countries in South Asia. Under present socio-economic and climatic conditions, China, India, Pakistan and South Korea are facing water deficits. The characteristic feature of water
  • management in South Asia is the dominating role of agriculture in water use. The key question addressed in the paper is the impact of climate change on water resources, and the adaptive measures that may be used to cope with water deficits. In all
  • the analyzed countries, the mean reason for worsening water conditions is the expected population growth, the effect of climate change is marginal.
  • 1997
  • Preliminary analyses for crop water consumption by using lysimeter
  • Agriculture ; Cereal ; China ; Crop yield ; Drainage ; Evapotranspiration ; Irrigation ; Northern China ; Water ; Water management ; Water needs
  • This paper deliberates on the issue of water consumption (evapotranspiration, ET) of 3 main crops in North China : wheat, corn and bean, its relation with crop yield and the possible use of thus in the water saving practice.
  • 1997
  • A study on field water circulation pattern in the dryland of northern China
  • Agropedology ; Arid area ; China ; Crop ; Drought ; Evaporation ; Northern China ; Precipitation ; Soil moisture ; Soil water ; Water circulation
  • Based on the observed data of soil water from locating experiments between 1986 and 1990, using the water balance, this paper studies the field water circulation law of main crops in northern China, where the mean annual precipitation is 300-600 mm
  • 1997
  • Applied hydrology ; Czech Republic ; Estimation ; Mathematical model ; Simulation ; Water ; Water pollution ; Water quality
  • Mathematical modelling in the case of the main Czech rivers is based on simulation of water movement in the river bed and on consequent modelling of diffusion of pollutants. It makes possible to calculate a continuous longthwise-profile of water
  • quality in the water course, to identify the impact of various pollution sources and to predict water quality changes over the time under changing external conditions. - (MS)
  • 1997
  • Power, nature, and the city. The conquest of water and the political ecology of urbanization in Guayaquil, Ecuador: 1880-1990
  • Collective facilities ; Ecuador ; Guayaquil ; Historical geography ; Marketing channel ; Sanitation improvement ; Urbanization ; Viability ; Water ; Water management
  • The A. attempts to reconstruct the urbanization process as a political and an ecological process. In Guayaquil, water becomes subject to an intense social struggle for control and access. The A. documents and analyzes the historical geography
  • of water control in the context of the political ecology of the urbanization. The urbanization process is written from the perspective of the drive to domesticate nature's water and the necessity to push the ecological frontier outward as the city expands.
  • 1997
  • A study of the water resources and sediment problems in the irrigated area of northwest Shandong Province
  • China ; Crop yield ; Groundwater ; Irrigation ; Sedimentation ; Surface water ; Water ; Water management ; Water resources
  • There are very serious water and sediment problems in the irrigated areas of northwest Shandong Province. The conflicts between the excessive dependence on the Yellow River and the decreasing tendancy of water amount provided by the Yellow River
  • forces the local government to find new ways to solve the water ressource problems. The answer could be : using new technique for the irrigated system, pay more attention to the ground water development, and the construction and maintenance of wells.
  • 1997
  • The utilization of water resource and the oasis economic development in arid land. A case study of Turpan Basin
  • Arid area ; China ; Groundwater ; Oasis ; Runoff ; Sustainable development ; Water ; Water resources ; Water use ; Watershed
  • This paper briefly analyzes the characteristics of the basin's water resources, and expounds the processes of their utilization and regional development. It points out that the exploration of water resource is close to the limit and the utilization
  • of water resource is unreasonable. According to the transforming pattern between runoff and groundwater in the basin, an overall planning of the utilization of the water resource is advanced. Building up an economic system which can effectively use water
  • 1997
  • Socio-economic factors influencing sustainable water supply in Botswana
  • Arid area ; Botswana ; Economic cost ; Price fixing ; Water ; Water economics ; Water needs ; Water resources
  • Botswana is concerned with water shortages which may hamper people's basic needs and industrial development in the future. Other sustainability concerns relate to the environment (pollution), social factor (equity and affordability) and economic
  • considerations (cost recovery and efficiency). Prices, costs and the value of water are instrumental in striking a compromise between these goals. Trends in pricing and their relationship with costs and resource value are presented, and the impact of prices
  • and subsidies on water demand and supply reviewed in order to assess their contribution towards a sustainable equilibrium.
  • 1997