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  • Bioclimatological research : the issue of climatic sensitivity
  • Bioclimatology ; Climatic variation ; Ecotone ; Synoptic climatology
  • This essay discusses the issue of climatic sensitivity and the problems inherent in its evaluation within the general context of bioclimatological research. The more conventional approach implies that repeated minor perturbations of climate have
  • significant impact on organism range and success. The extreme-event approach suggests that a few unique events have the greatest impact. A review of the literature seems to indicate a movement of bioclimatologists toward the extreme-event approach.
  • Climatic trends of different intensity heavy precipitation events concentration in China
  • Années 1951-2002 ; Chine ; Crue ; Mousson ; Pluie torrentielle ; Précipitation ; Prévision ; Statistique ; Tendance du climat ; Variabilité climatique
  • China ; Climatic trend ; Climatic variability ; Flood ; Forecast ; Heavy rain ; Monsoon ; Precipitation ; Statistics
  • their statistical characteristics, mainly including spatial and temporal distributions, variations and climatic trends of the 2 parameters of the durative heavy precipitation events in China.This method can be applied in flood assessment and climate change fields.
  • Based on 740 stations of daily precipitation datasets in China, the precipitation-concentration degree (PCD) and precipitation-concentration period (PCP) of different intensity durative precipitation events were calculated to analyze
  • Analysis and characteristics of pluviometric events in the Germanasca Valley (Italian Western Alps)
  • Climatic data ; Climatic event ; Forecast ; Italy ; Meteorology ; Piemonte ; Pluviometry ; Precipitation ; Statistical analysis ; Twentieth Century
  • Sets of historic rainfall data (1913-2003) from four rain gauge stains in the Germanasca Valley were examined to identify the characteristic features of major, potentially dangerous rainfall events. In this study, a pluviometric event was considered
  • as a circumscribed meteo-climatic above a set threshold combined with a meteorological analysis. - (NF)
  • Seasonal climate forecasting and the relevance of local knowledge
  • Agroclimatology ; Climate ; Climatic event ; Concept ; Ethnography ; Forecast ; Mexico ; Perception ; Tlaxcala ; Traditional agriculture
  • Agriculture traditionnelle ; Agroclimatologie ; Climat ; Concept ; Ethnographie ; Mexique ; Perception ; Prévision ; Risque climatique ; Tlaxcala
  • Numerous studies of traditional agricultural communities have shown that farmers already often manage climatic risk through traditional methods of climate prediction and ritual. This local knowledge may or may not accurately predict climatic events
  • , but it characterizes the demand for climate information and indicates how new climate forecasts might be received. Based on ethnographic data, this paper describes traditional climate prediction methods of farmers in Tlaxcala, Mexico to illustrate the relevance
  • of local climate knowledge for seasonal forecasting.
  • Tree-growth response to Enso events in the central Colorado Front Range
  • Atmospheric circulation ; Climate oscillation ; Climatic warming ; Colorado ; Dendrochronology ; Dendrology ; El Niño ; Ocean atmosphere interaction ; Temperature ; United States
  • The inflence of climate associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events on tree growth in the central Colorado Front Range is investigated through the analysis of two high altitude tree-ring chronologies. Dendrochronological techniques
  • are used to determine if ENSO-related climatic effects are detectable in tree-ring width patterns in the central Colorado Front Range. The form of the tree growth response is identified and the variability of the influence of these events on tree growth
  • Abrupt climate change : an alternative view
  • Climatic change ; Geochemistry ; Global change ; Ice core ; Isotope analysis ; Ocean atmosphere interaction ; Ocean circulation ; Oxygen 18
  • Hypotheses and inferences concerning the nature of abrupt climate change, exemplified by the Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events, are reviewed. There is little concrete evidence that these events are more than a regional Greenland phenomenon
  • . The partial coherence of ice core δO 18 and CH4 is a possible exception. A likely scenario is that changes in the ocean circulation are a consequence of wind shifts. The disappearance of D-O events in the Holocene coincides with the diappearance also
  • of the Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheets. It is thus suggested that D-O events are a consequence of interactions of the windfield with the continental ice sheets.
  • The dynamics to selected extreme climatic events in Poland
  • Atmospheric circulation ; Climate ; Climatic variability ; Exceptional event ; Poland ; Precipitation ; Time series ; Twentieth Century ; Wind
  • Circulation atmosphérique ; Climat ; Phénomène exceptionnel ; Pologne ; Précipitation ; Siècle 20 ; Série chronologique ; Variabilité climatique ; Vent
  • This article presents the variability to selected extreme climatic phenomena in Poland in the second half of the 20th century. The main attention is paid to the search for exceptional values for indicators or trends that might be regarded as effects
  • High-magnitude landslide events on a limestone-scarp in central Germany : morphometric characteristics and climatic controls
  • This paper explores which external climatic variables of difference temporal scales influence the occurrence of high-magnitude landslide events. The investigations were focused on the Wellenkalk-cuesta scarp in the Thuringia Basin. Rainfall
  • parameters of different temporal scales (annual rainfall to extreme short-time rainfall events) are analyzed in the context of the given morphostructural, morphometric and geological setting.
  • Extreme climate events over northern China during the last 50 years
  • Agroclimatologie ; Années 1956-2001 ; Chine ; Chine du Nord ; Climat ; Extrême climatique ; Pluie torrentielle ; Précipitation ; Série chronologique ; Température ; Tendance du climat
  • Agroclimatology ; China ; Climate ; Climatic trend ; Heavy rain ; Northern China ; Precipitation ; Temperature ; Time series
  • Climate extremes for agricultural-pasture transitional zone, northern China are analyzed on the basis of daily mean temperature and precipitation observations for 31 stations in the period 1956-2001. Analysis season for precipitation is May
  • -September, the rainy season. Heavy rain evenys show no significant show no significant secular trend. There is a weak and non-significant upward trend in frequency of extremely high temperatures from the 1950s to the mid-1990s. But the number of hot events
  • increases as much as twice since 1997. The frequency of low temperature events have been decreasing steadily since the 1950s.
  • High-energy geomorphic events in the Polish Tatra Mountains
  • Climatic variation ; Debris flow ; Earthquake ; Lichenometry ; Mass movement ; Mountain ; Poland ; Slope ; Tatra Mountains
  • energy geomorphic events are limited to the apex section of talus slopes and rarely affect the whole slope. During the Little Ice Age debris flows and rockfalls were both more frequent and of greater magnitude due to changes in both climatic factors
  • The aim of this paper is to examine the temporal patterns and interrelationships between these two types of high-energy geomorphic events (debris flows and rockfall/rockslides) in the Tatra over the last several centuries. At the present time high
  • Midwestern high dew point events 1960-2000
  • Années 1960-2000 ; Climat ; Climatologie appliquée ; Etats-Unis ; Eté ; Evaporation ; Midwest ; Point de rosée ; Température ; Vague de chaleur
  • Applied climatology ; Climate ; Evaporation ; Heat wave ; Midwest ; Summer ; Temperature ; United States of America
  • Daily average dew points (DADPs) computed for 46 Midwestern first-order stations (FOS) were examined from 1960 to 2000 to dentify and characterize extreme warm-season high dew point events. Developing a greater understanding of the spatial
  • and temporal evolution of widespread and intense high dew point events should assist those involved in the design and operation of air conditioning systems that rely on evaporative processes to cool air.
  • Brouillard ; Etats-Unis ; Etats-Unis du Sud ; Humidité atmosphérique ; Prévision ; Régression linéaire ; Tendance du climat ; Virginia
  • Atmospheric moisture ; Climatic trend ; Fog ; Forecast ; Linear regression ; Southern United States ; United States of America ; Virginia
  • This study identifies the trends and frequency of fog events across the south-eastern United States. A simple linear regression was performed on hourly datasets for annual and seasonal fog-event days and on fog duration. The majority of Virginia
  • stations displayed significant decreasing numbers of fog-event days for 3 seasons, and 4 stations experienced decreasing fog events in all fog-duration categories.
  • A large California flood and correlative global climatic events 400 years ago
  • C 14 dating ; California ; Climatic cooling ; Flood ; Global change ; Little ice age ; Palaeoclimatology ; Palaeogeography ; Quaternary ; Teleconnection ; United States of America
  • and 1610, the AA. explore possible climatic connections with extreme events elsewhere in the region and around the globe.
  • Holocene climate fluctuations and geomorphic impact of extreme events in Svalbard
  • Arctic Region ; Avalanche ; Climatic variation ; Cold area ; Debris flow ; Lichenometry ; Mass movement ; Palaeogeography ; Slope dynamics ; Spitsbergen ; Svalbard
  • intervals for debris flows and slush avalanches, and the life-expectancy of resulting landforms are estimated. Correlating extreme events and climate fluctuations in the Scandinavian mountains is difficult because of the low frequency of major slush stream
  • Geomorphological investigations, detailed mapping and lichenometrical surveys carried out at 27 sites located in northwest and central Spitsbergen provide new insight into the history of major slush stream and debris flow events. Recurrence
  • events and of the brief lifetime of debris flow features.
  • Extreme events in the context of late Quaternary environmental change
  • Extreme events and the transformation of landscape
  • Climatic variation ; Exceptional event ; Fluvial processes ; Geomorphology ; Human impact ; Impact ; Landscape ; Landslide ; Plant canopy ; Quaternary ; Slope gradient
  • The significance of extreme events in landform change is discussed in the context of the late Quaternary. Millennia-scale cycles of climate change are less than the relaxation times of most landform systems and have led to widespread disequilibrium
  • time and research needs to establish the role of individual events within this timescale of enquiry.
  • Modelling the geomorphological impact of climatic variability and extreme events in a semi-arid environment
  • Arid area ; Badland ; Castilla-La Mancha ; Climatic variability ; Climatic variation ; Desertification ; Ecosystem ; Heavy rain ; Model ; Semi-arid area ; Soil erosion ; Spain
  • This paper examines the impact of climatic variability on hydrology and vegetation cover using the PATTERN ecosystem model. Significant inter-annual and medium-term variability in the components of the hydrological budget and in vegetation
  • properties and process is apparent in the results. The A. concludes with the observation that the majority of significant soil erosion events in Castilla La Mancha (CLM) occur as a result of extreme precipitation events rather than slow progressive land
  • degradation. In this way, badlands are the relic of past climatic extremes and not necessarilyan indicator of present-day desertification.
  • Geomorphological evolution of slopes and climate changes in Northern Italy during the Late Quaternary : spatial and temporal distribution of landslides and landscape sensitivity implications
  • Alpes ; Appennino ; Climat ; Dynamique de versant ; Glissement de terrain ; Italie ; Italie du Nord ; Sismicité ; Utilisation du sol ; Versant
  • Alps (The) ; Appennino ; Climate ; Italy ; Land use ; Landslide ; Northern Italy ; Seismicity ; Slope ; Slope dynamics
  • This paper deals with the use of landslide records in the analysis of landscape sensitivity, with particular reference to climate change as a forcing process. The dating of past landslide events is useful to reconstruct the evolution of a slope
  • -system at a broad temporal scale and to recognize the different formative events it has experienced. The goal is to recognize the temporal changes through environmental factors which condition landsliding events such as climate, seismic activity
  • , vegetation, and land use, trying to identify the relationship between landslide events and their initiating process, which is known to be complicated by the behaviour and the properties of the hillslope system, in other words its sensitivity. Case studies
  • Extreme precipitation events on the northern side of the Tatra Mountains
  • Extreme events and the transformation of landscape
  • Climatic data ; Climatic variability ; Heavy rain ; Mountain ; Poland ; Precipitation ; Tatra Mountains ; Twentieth Century
  • for the Hala Gąsienicowa meteorological station at 1520 m a.s.l., the place with the heaviest rainfall in Poland. Discussion of the results. A transition to a rather wetter phase of climate has been noted since 1995.
  • Climate of Southern Africa
  • Afrique du Sud ; Anomalie climatique ; Circulation atmosphérique ; Climat ; El Niño ; Interaction océan-atmosphère ; Modèle ; Mousson ; Précipitation ; Prévision ; Siècle 20 ; Sécheresse ; Variabilité interannuelle
  • Atmospheric circulation ; Climate ; Climatic anomaly ; Drought ; El Niño ; Forecast ; Interannual variability ; Model ; Monsoon ; Ocean atmosphere interaction ; Precipitation ; South Africa ; Twentieth Century
  • This paper reviews recent research pertaining to climate variability over Southern Africa, particularly South Africa. Atmosphere-ocean interaction studies relevant to the above- and below-normal rainfall events are highlighted. Linked
  • to this is the predictibility of such rainfall events using general circulation models. - (AJC)
  • Has the climate become more variable or extreme ? Progress 1992-2006
  • Bibliography ; Catastrophe ; Climate ; Climatic change ; Climatic event ; Drought ; Exceptional event ; Frost ; Greenhouse effect ; Heat wave ; Inundation ; Research
  • Années 1992-2006 ; Bibliographie ; Catastrophe ; Changement climatique ; Climat ; Effet de serre ; Gelée ; Inondation ; Phénomène exceptionnel ; Recherche ; Risque climatique ; Sécheresse ; Vague de chaleur