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  • Crises et mutations des agricultures et des espaces ruraux. Les agricultures subarctiques de l'Europe du Nord
  • Crises et mutations agricoles et rurales
  • Agricultural policy ; Agricultural production ; Agriculture ; Cold area ; Cultivated plants ; Cultural capacity ; Europe ; Farm ; Farming system ; Iceland ; Northern Europe ; Rural area ; Rural change ; Scandinavia ; Subarctic area
  • Agriculture ; Aptitude culturale ; Domaine subarctique ; Espace rural ; Europe ; Europe du Nord ; Exploitation agricole ; Islande ; Mutation rurale ; Plante cultivée ; Politique agricole ; Production agricole ; Scandinavie ; Système de culture
  • Il s'agit d'un ensemble complexe comprenant un type d'agriculture au sens économique et social, un système de culture et d'élevage, un modèle d'espaces ruraux commandés par le climat, la pédologie et la topographie. Autres caractéristiques liées à
  • Changes in the production orientations of the individual agriculture in Poland in the years 1960, 1965 and 1970 in Transformation of rural areas.
  • (1960, 1965, 1970) ; Agriculture ; Agriculture familiale ; Elevage ; Géographie de l'Europe ; Pologne ; Système de culture
  • Geography of Europe
  • Evolution des systèmes agricoles et des plantes cultivées (ou systèmes d'élevage) dans les exploitations agricoles privées.
  • Agricultural production ; Agriculture ; Biodiversity ; Cultivated plants ; Cultural capacity ; Farming system ; Nepal ; Poverty ; Resource management ; Rural area
  • Agriculture ; Aptitude culturale ; Biodiversité ; Espace rural ; Gestion des ressources ; Népal ; Pauvreté ; Plante cultivée ; Production agricole ; Système de culture
  • La plupart des communautés rurales ont limité les possibilités de développement agricole dans les collines et montagnes du Népal. Elles sont marginalisées par la pauvreté et l'insuffisance des infrastructures. La conservation de l'agro-biodiversité
  • n'est pas une pratique encore très répandue au Népal. Un développement agricole complémentaire est néanmoins possible dans les espaces ruraux marginaux, si l'on préfère travailler avec la diversité locale.
  • Social, economic and demographic changes of rural areas in Lithuania
  • Changing functions of rural areas in the Baltic Sea Region
  • Demographic change ; Economic restructuring ; Farm ; Lithuania ; Rural area ; Rural parish ; Rural population ; Rural settlement ; Social change ; Spatial analysis ; Spatial distribution
  • Analyse spatiale ; Changement social ; Commune rurale ; Distribution spatiale ; Espace rural ; Evolution démographique ; Exploitation agricole ; Habitat rural ; Lituanie ; Population rurale ; Restructuration économique
  • The article deals with the problems of the economic and demographic situation in the rural areas of Lithuania ; contains a brief review of distribution of farms according to the size and area of cultivated land. Special attention is paid
  • to the changes of rural population and the determining factors there of, the spatial analysis of natural increase and old age index in rural municipalities, and the transformation of the network of rural settlements in Lithuania. - (BJ)
  • Geographical aspects of the development and utilization of arable land area in Finland
  • Autosuffisance alimentaire ; Défrichement ; Dépeuplement rural ; Exploitation agricole ; Finlande ; Friche ; Géographie de l'Europe ; Rendement agricole ; Surface cultivée ; Terre arable ; Utilisation du sol
  • Geography of Europe
  • The paper concentrates on observing changes in the area of arable land and in its utilization after World War II. The results are presented mainly cartographically. The area of arable land and rural settlement expanded until the mid-60's. After
  • of farms is most pronounced in the remote districts of Northern and Eastern Finland. At present already 11 % of the total arable land area of Finland is uncultivated.
  • the wars, 310 000 hectares of arable land was cleared, and the total arable land area of Finland peaked in 1967, when the area was 2.75 million hectares. The main focus of the arable land and its agricultural production has always been in the southern
  • and western parts of the country. The importance of agriculture has decreased considerably during the last few decades, nevertheless production has increased. Self-sufficiency was reached as early as the 1950's and in the 1960's over-production was already
  • a considerable problem. From the late 1960's the number of actice farms has sharply begun to decline. The work in forestry is now highly mechanized and the opportunities for the farming population to this supplement their incomes have decreased. The deserting
  • Farming systems and soil-conservation practices in a study area of northern Thailand
  • Farming system ; Rural development ; Shifting cultivation ; Soil conservation ; Soil erosion ; Thailand
  • Conservation des sols ; Culture itinérante ; Développement rural ; Erosion des sols ; Système de culture ; Thaïlande
  • tree hedgerows, grass strips, and incorporation of perennials - have not been adopted by most farmers. Authors seek a better understanding for poor adoption rate and search for alternatives. - (SLD)
  • Changing functions of rural areas in the Baltic Sea Region
  • Developments of rural economies in Central and Eastern Europe : an overview
  • Agribusiness ; Central Europe ; Eastern Europe ; Europe ; European integration ; Gross national product ; Infrastructure ; Investment ; Rural economy ; Sustainable development ; Unemployment
  • Chômage ; Développement durable ; Economie rurale ; Europe ; Europe centrale ; Europe de l'Est ; Industrie agro-alimentaire ; Infrastructure ; Intégration européenne ; Investissement ; Produit national brut
  • measures should use a multifunctional approach which incorporates the competitiveness of the agrifood sector, rural infrastructure and non-farm income sources and measures enhancing labour mobility. The EU accession is a chance for rural areas. However
  • The analysis of the rural situation on the basis of GDP p.c., investments, unemployment and sectoral structures leads to the question on which basis a sustainable and dynamic rural development can be achieved in the future. Rural development
  • , there remain important challenges particularly in institution and capacity building just as in the political development of a clear focus and strategic vision. - (BJ)
  • The Rumanian farm household and the village community in Anthropology and social change in rural areas.
  • Droit de propriété ; Foncier ; Grande famille ; Géographie de l'Europe ; Magie ; Mariage ; Roumanie ; Société rurale ; Village
  • Geography of Europe
  • Village et grande famille (Gospodaria) dans la société rurale traditionnelle roumaine.
  • Agro-environmental analogues for jojoba production in South Africa
  • Afrique du Sud ; Agronomie ; Aptitude culturale ; Jojoba ; Plante cultivée ; Production agricole
  • Agronomics;Agronomy ; Crop ; Cultural capacity ; Farm production ; South Africa
  • South African environmental analogues are identified for jojoba (Simmondsia chinesia). Comparisons are presented with the areas of origin in North America to identify suitable production areas in South Africa. - (AJC)
  • Coffee marketing in an Indonesian high-land area: a local institution under changing external conditions
  • Agriculture ; Café ; Commercialisation ; Economie agricole ; Indonésie ; Marché ; Marché périodique ; Paysannerie ; Plante cultivée ; Sulawesi
  • Agricultural economics ; Agriculture ; Coffee ; Cultivated plants ; Indonesia ; Market ; Marketing ; Peasantry ; Periodic market
  • It is shown that coffee marketing within the traditional market system of an Indonesian highland area turns out to be an increasing disadvantage for the rural poor since it involves high transaction costs. New practices will have
  • to be institutionalized in order to facilitiate more transparency and to strengthen the peasant's capacity to compete with other production areas.
  • Okonomische Betrachtungen zum Bayerischen Kulturlandschaftsprogramm Considérations économiques sur le programme bavarois concernant le paysage cultivé
  • Agriculture ; Allemagne ; Bayern ; Economie rurale ; Géographie de l'Europe ; Paysage rural ; Production agricole ; Produit laitier ; Système de culture
  • Geography of Europe
  • The Bavarian Arable Landscape Programme (Kulap) has created an opportunity to award prizes for adherence to prescribed farming conditions applicable to predetermined areas of the countryside. Using the example of Greenland Expansion the A. examines
  • the commercial attractions of this programme for dairy farmers. - (L'A.).
  • The changing function and position of rural areas in Europe
  • Counterurbanization ; Countryside ; Economic restructuring ; Europe ; Germany ; Great Britain ; Hungary ; Ireland ; Netherlands (The) ; Northern Europe ; Poland ; Regional policy ; Rural area ; Rural change
  • Allemagne ; Campagne ; Contre-urbanisation ; Espace rural ; Europe ; Europe du Nord ; Great Britain ; Hongrie ; Irlande ; Mutation rurale ; Pays-Bas ; Politique régionale ; Pologne ; Restructuration économique
  • The changing function and position of rural areas in Europe was selected the topic of an international workshop in Utrecht September 1991. The aim was to get an overall picture of current developments in rural areas in a numbver of European
  • countries. This book wontains the workshop presentations. Topics dealt with are situated in the Netherlands, Northern Europe, Ireland, Britain, Poland, Germany and Hungary. - (AGD)
  • Institutions, alternative farming systems, and local reregulation
  • Economic environment ; Economic restructuring ; England ; Farm ; Farming system ; Local economy ; Northumberland ; Organization ; Partnership ; Regional policy ; Rural area ; Rural development ; United Kingdom
  • Développement rural ; Economie locale ; England ; Environnement économique ; Espace rural ; Exploitation agricole ; Northumberland ; Organisation ; Partenariat ; Politique régionale ; Restructuration économique ; Royaume-Uni ; Système de culture
  • . explore the interrelationships between the development of alternative farming systems and the institutional regulatory environment, using as a case study an area in northern England.
  • The weakening of the postwar nexus of a productivst agriculture and a distinctive system of regulating the rural economy has created new challenges for British rural institutions. Using the concept of the local mode of social regulation, the AA
  • Prospects of improved farming systems in a shifting cultivation area in Zambia
  • Agriculture traditionnelle ; Culture itinérante ; Culture permanente ; Géographie de l'Afrique ; Maïs ; Prospective ; Système de culture ; Zambie
  • The transition from traditional shifting cultivation to permanent maize cultivation in Northern Zambia wa studied with emphasis on land, labour and agro-economical aspects.
  • The farmer as a landscape manager : management roles ans change patterns in a Danish region
  • Agrarian structure ; Agricultural landscape ; Agricultural policy ; Denmark ; Enquiry ; Farm ; Farmer ; Jylland ; Landed property ; Pluriactivity ; Rural landscape
  • Agriculteur ; Danemark ; Enquête ; Exploitation agricole ; Jylland ; Paysage agricole ; Paysage rural ; Pluriactivité ; Politique agricole ; Propriété foncière ; Structure agraire
  • Agricultor ; Dinamarca ; Encuesta ; Estructura agraria ; Explotación agrícola ; Paisaje rural ; Pluriactividad ; Política agrícola ; Propiedad fundaria
  • Rural landscapes are maintained and changed through farmers’ decisions and practices. The farmer has many different roles of which three roles related to the farm as a whole is investigated : producer, owner and citizen. Production based decisions
  • are assumed to be more important for full time farmers than for hobby farmers who have their main income outside the farm and who may consider their farm more as a living place than as a production place. Based on a large survey carried out in Hvorslev
  • , Eastern Jutland, Denmark in 2008 farmers’ landscape practices are analysed in relation to their background, occupational status and view of the farms as a production place versus a living place. 377 farmers are interviewed and some comparisons are made
  • to a similar survey in the same area in 1996. A significant proportion of farmers are hobby farmers who mainly see the farm as a living place and who have different landscape practices than full time farmers have.
  • Agricultural policy ; Agricultural productivity ; Agriculture ; Extensive cultivation ; Fallow land ; Farming system ; Germany ; Rural property
  • Agriculture ; Allemagne ; Culture extensive ; Jachère ; Politique agricole ; Productivité agricole ; Propriété rurale ; Système de culture
  • farms employing modes of production which in the USA or Canada are known as ranching and farming. - (MT)
  • preserves, at least as far as low-yield areas are concerned. All the rest must be put to economical use so that it can at least provide a minimum livelihood for the remaining population. The future of the low-yield areas is to lie in extensively run large
  • Agriculture ; Allemagne de l'Ouest ; Baden-Württemberg ; Coopérative ; Culture fourragère ; Elevage ; Géographie de l'Europe ; Problème régional ; Schwarzwald ; Technique d'exploitation
  • Geography of Europe
  • even under more difficult productivity conditions and guarantee an optimally cultivated and open-kept scenery can only prove to be succesful if the majority of farmers abandon their traditionally comprehensive farming habits and practices in this area
  • Within the middle and southern Black Forest areas agriculture can hardly be carried out on a profitable basis because of the region's. Many impeding conditions. The introduction of new forms of farm management and cultivation which are profitable
  • , where for a minority of farmers cultivation even today is still self-supply orientated. Practicable solutions might be the following: Specialization in dairy cattle farming in cooperation with heifer breeding plants. Extensive cattle bredding
  • Le territoire rural (2e partie)
  • Agrarian structure ; Agriculture ; Central Europe ; Enclosed landscape ; Europe ; Farming system ; Openfield ; Rural area ; Territory
  • Agriculture ; Bocage ; Espace rural ; Europe ; Europe centrale ; Openfield ; Structure agraire ; Système de culture ; Territoire
  • La seconde partie du dossier pédagogique consacré au territoire rural fait suite au numéro 37 de G.E.O. ; cette partie présente le lieu rural, les grandes structures agraires et les territoires ruraux de l'Europe du centre. - (EM)
  • Alternatives for European rural areas
  • Rural space and rural development in Romania
  • Agricultural sector ; Classification ; Demographic analysis ; Demographic structure ; Gender ; Migratory flow ; Romania ; Rural area ; Rural development ; Rural-urban relations
  • Analyse démographique ; Classification ; Développement rural ; Espace rural ; Flux migratoire ; Genre ; Roumanie ; Secteur agricole ; Structure démographique ; Ville-campagne
  • flows. The rural-urban flows are considered, as is the employment structure in rural areas. Then, the farming sector is analyzed, both with respect to its productive and factor characteristics, and the farm population features, over the period
  • The rural space of Romania is characterized in terms of administrative breakdown, area and population, with reference to the NUTS classifications. This is followed by a demographic analysis of the gender and age structures, as well as migration
  • of systemic transformation. It is noted that farming intensity has gone down altogether on almost all accounts, while privarization of farming has been overwhelming. At the same time, during the transformation, there have been disadvantageous phenomena within
  • the farm population. - (BJ)
  • Permanences et changements dans la vie rurale. L'agriculture au Pays d'Ath
  • Agricultural technique ; Belgium ; Farming;Agriculture ; Hainaut ; Rural area ; Rural history ; Rural settlement ; Wallonie
  • Agriculture ; Belgique ; Espace rural ; Habitat rural ; Hainaut ; Histoire rurale ; Technique agricole ; Wallonie
  • plantes qu'il cultive, les animaux qu'il élève (les cultures traditionnelles, les productions nouvelles depuis le XVIIIe siècle); IV. L'espace rural et les voies de communication; V. Le paysan face aux calamités (Les intempéries, les épidémies, les
  • Après une introduction historique et géographique, l'ouvrage comporte 5 chapitres : I. Le paysan et sa terre (Les débuts de l'agriculture dans le Pays d'Ath, l'habitat rural, le régime agraire); II. Le paysan, ses outils, ses techniques; III. Les